Introduction to chirality (handedness), and how chirality is related to the groups bonded to a central carbon. Created by Sal Khan.
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L-form and D-form, are how the molecule "bends light". R- and S- designation, are shorthand to distinguish between the two enantiomers, left or right handedness of molecule. Eg, when the smallest side group attached to a chiral carbon, is placed at rear of molecule, then the three other groups may rotate clockwise (R-), or anticlockwise (S-), going from heaviest side group, to second heaviest, then third.
Oggston discovered that nature can tell the difference between 2 different, and two similar side groups, by the nature of attachment. The example Biochemists quote is cis-aconitate in TCA cycle. Might well apply to Glutamic acid, eg MSG. Hope it wasn't synthetically sourced, Chemists just don't get 100% Yields in such reactions (Racemisation)!!!
Chiral centres are applicable in amino acids, though some are likely to be Oggston's 3-point attachment theorem. Hence, they are essential in enzymes (in nature L-form). So, primary, secondary, tertiary structures of enzymes would be altered by D-form, I believe.
Chiral is Greek for hand. Chiroptera is Bat with wings attached to its arms (ptera meaning wings like Archeoptra, Lepidopteron, Pterodactyl, Coleoptera). what I mean is cheir(chiros) means hand and its not a coincidence that hands are chiral(no plane of symmetry and all that) so we gave this name.
Apparently this free drawing blackboard software is quite popular, as I have seen it used by Stanford online courses as well. Newsflash: it sucks. It is painful to watch instructor slowly handwriting words letter by letter. Look, there is a keyboard where you can type it. Or better yet, reveal the whole word or phrase at once. Like powerpoint slides do.
Makes me think of a short story by Arthur C Clarke about a man who accidentally fell into a 4th dimension of space, resulting in all his molecules changing chirality. The result was that he could not attain nourishment from anything he ate and so started starving.
No but that's an easy mistake to make. Look closely at the planes in which each of the three groups below the carbon are in. If you looked at it from above (looking downward through the fluorine and carbon) you would see the molecules arranged methane, bromine, hydrogen (counterclockwise) on the left compound. If you looked down on the other it would be methane, hydrogen, bromine. If you rotated the left compound one "tick" counterclockwise, you would have the bromine in back and the hydrogen on the left.
It's methyl. When considering identifying a group you just identify what protrudes from the central Carbon...since only CH3 protrudes from the central Carbon than it is only a Methyl. If you were to name the molecule though it would be Ethyl: 1-Bromo-1-Fluroehtyl (the rules for naming molecules IUPAC and naming groups can be a bit tricky and requires work to learn)
visualising this with a set of model molecules is maybe a little easier to understand. The main point I see is the emphasis on a plausible product created in a mirror image, perhaps even structurally exactly the same, however, because of its orientation spatially (3D) it can not be placed (superimposed) back onto the original substance no matter how you try to spin it around etc. These differences lead into important theories relative to reactivity and R and S configurations
Think about your own hands and not the drawing... if you were to put your left hand on your right hand, your nails on one hand would be towards you, and your nails on your other hand would be away from you.
Sal I hope you know that you are an inspiration to millions of students around the world watching your videos everyday. I really wish you the best and may you succeed in everything you wish to accomplish
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