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Overview on Modern Cryptography
 
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Cryptography and Network Security by Prof. D. Mukhopadhyay, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, IIT Kharagpur. For more details on NPTEL visit http://nptel.iitm.ac.in
Views: 36601 nptelhrd
Black Hat USA 2012 - Torturing OpenSSL
 
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By: Valeria Bertacco For any computing system to be secure, both hardware and software have to be trusted. If the hardware layer in a secure system is compromised, not only it is possible to extract secret information about the software, but it is also extremely difficult for the software to detect that an attack is underway. This talk will detail a complete end-to-end security attack to on a microprocessor system and will demonstrate how hardware vulnerabilities can be exploited to target systems that are software-secure. Specifically, we present a side-channel attack to the RSA signature algorithm by leveraging transient hardware faults at the server. Faults may be induced via voltage-supply variation, temperature variation, injection of single-event faults, etc. When affected by faults, the server produces erroneous RSA signatures, which it returns to the client. Once a sufficient number of erroneously signed messages is collected at the client end, we filter those that can leak private key information and we use them to extract the private key. We developed an algorithm to extract the private RSA key from messages affected by single-bit faults in the multiplication during Fixed Window Exponentiation (FWE), that is, the standard exponentiation algorithm used in OpenSSL during RSA signing. Our algorithm was inspired by a solution developed by Boneh, et al. for the Chinese Remainder Theorem (CRT) [D. Boneh, R. DeMillo, and R. Lipton. On the importance of eliminating errors in cryptographic computations. Journal of Cryptology, Dec 2001], an algorithm particularly prone to attacks. Depending of the window size used in the encryption algorithm, it is possible to extract 4-6 bits of the private key from an erroneously signed message. Our attack is perpetrated using a FPGA platform implementing a SPARC-based microprocessor running unmodified Linux and the OpenSSL authentication library. The server provides 1024-bits RSA authentication to a client we control via Ethernet connection. Faults are injected by inducing variations in the supply voltage on the FPGA platform or by subjecting the server to high temperatures. Our client collects a few thousands signed messages, which we transfer to an 80-machines computing pool to compute the private RSA key in less than 100 hours. Note that our attack does not require access to the victim system's internal components, but simply proximity to it. Moreover, it is conceivable that an attack leveraging solely high temperatures can be carried out on machines in a remote poorly-conditioned server room. Finally, the attack does not leave any trail of the attack in the victim machine, and thus it cannot be detected. The presentation includes a live demo of the attack on an FPGA platform implementing a SPARC system. The system is powered via a voltage controller, used to induce variations in the supply voltage. The server is simplified to use a 128-bits private key so that the attack can be perpetrated during the briefing.
Views: 529 Black Hat
9. Securing Web Applications
 
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MIT 6.858 Computer Systems Security, Fall 2014 View the complete course: http://ocw.mit.edu/6-858F14 Instructor: James Mickens In this lecture, Professor Mickens continues looking at how to build secure web applications. License: Creative Commons BY-NC-SA More information at http://ocw.mit.edu/terms More courses at http://ocw.mit.edu
Views: 40087 MIT OpenCourseWare
Using Static Analysis For Software Defect Detection
 
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Google TechTalks July 6, 2006 William Pugh ABSTRACT I'll talk about some of my experience in using and expanding static analysis tools for defect detection. The FindBugs tool developed at the Univ. of Maryland is now being widely used, including inside Google. I'll give an overview of FindBugs, show some of the kinds of errors we routinely find in production code, discuss the methodology we use for enhancing and expanding FindBugs and some of the recent additions to it, discuss ways of incorporating FindBugs into your development process (such as being able to get a report of all the warnings introduced since the last release of your software), and talk about the future of static analysis,...
Views: 4957 Google
David Mazières: "The Stellar Consensus Protocol" | Talks at Google
 
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David Mazières: "The Stellar Consensus Protocol: A Federated Model for Internet-level Consensus" This talk presents federated Byzantine agreement (FBA), a generalization of the standard Byzantine agreement problem. Unlike traditional Byzantine agreement--which presupposes unanimous agreement on system membership--the FBA model grants organizations individual control over whom to trust, allowing membership to grow organically out of pairwise relationships between participants. Compared to proof-of-work and proof-of-stake, two other decentralized alternatives to Byzantine agreement, FBA enables far more efficient constructions with greater margins of computational security. The talk further presents the Stellar consensus protocol (SCP), the first FBA protocol. SCP forms the backbone of the Stellar payment network, where it secures financial transactions. Other potential applications include secure timestamping and strengthening certificate transparency.
Views: 34254 Talks at Google
Len Adleman, 2002 ACM Turing Award Recipient
 
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Interviewed about what has influenced him, his life, his research work, and his accomplishments since receiving the Turing Award. More information: http://amturing.acm.org/award_winners/adleman_7308544.cfm
Meeting Customer Compliance Needs for Data at Rest with Customer Key  - THR3031
 
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Do you have compliance requirements to own your encryption keys for data at rest in the Office 365 service? If so, this session is for you. Learn about what benefits this feature gives you and guidance on how to implement it for your company.
Views: 734 Microsoft Ignite
Change Settings Part Way Through the Simulation and Continue Run
 
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In some cases, it is required to run the simulation with a different setting for the first stage and then switch to a different setting at a later stage. Sometimes such a change is required due to simulation stability considerations and sometimes it is needed to capture a physical phenomena in the application. In this video, we will see how to do that using Fluent text user interface commands.
Views: 1208 ANSYS TechTips
Harald Kautz   Vella Speaks Morgellons Watch This video first
 
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He sums it up very well....listen to it word by word https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCvQTV96Ao-V_gCoLO_1kh2A originally Published on Oct 2, 2017 Mr Kautz-Vella takes a deep dive into the many bizarre and novel symptoms surrounding the subjects of Morgellons syndrome and the effects of it on the human condition. He covers topics such as chemtrails, fungus, nanotechnology, cluster topology, pizeo electric nanocrystals, nanotags, spiritual attachments and many other subjects related to this scourge we have come to call Morgellons.
Views: 639 Ahmad Alhajri
Design & Deployment of Usable Web-based MPC for Data Aggregation by Andrei Lapetz
 
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Andrei Lapetz from Boston University presents his talk for the DIMACS/Northeast Big Data Hub Workshop on Privacy and Security for Big Data April 24 - 25, 2017 DIMACS Center, CoRE Building, Rutgers University Organizing Committee: René Bastón, Columbia University Joseph Lorenzo Hall, The Center for Democracy and Technology Adam Smith, Pennsylvania State University Sean Smith, Dartmouth College Rebecca Wright, Rutgers University Moti Yung, Snapchat Presented under the auspices of the DIMACS Big Data Initiative on Privacy and Security, the DIMACS Special Focus on Cybersecurity and in collaboration with the Northeast Big Data Innovation Hub. http://dimacs.rutgers.edu/Workshops/BigDataHub/
Views: 95 Rutgers University
Glenn Weyl Book Lecture: Radical Markets Uprooting Capitalism and Democracy for a Just Society
 
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E. Glen Weyl is a Principal Researcher at Microsoft Research New England and Visiting Senior Research Scholar at Yale’s Economics Department and Law School. His research spans economics, law, philosophy, computer sciene and political science with the aim of bringing together insights from all these fields to radically expand the scope of market exchange. For more info: https://www.brown.edu/academics/political-theory-project/glen-weyl-book-lecture-radical-markets-uprooting-capitalism-and-democracy-just-society Wednesday, April 25, 2018 Brown University
Views: 3270 Brown University
Redefining Reality | Geoffrey Lillemon Creative Director of W+K's Department of New Realities
 
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Geoffrey Lillemon - one of the Creative Directors of Wieden+Kennedy Amsterdam’s ‘Department of New Realities discusses how can we design experiences that take our perception of the world to new creative frontiers. Geoffrey a player in augmentation, focuses on layering the world around us with techno visions and cosmic fantasies, designed to cultivate provocative future landscapes. His latest projects include bringing to life the Moncler Genius book with AR, and evolving the way we listen to music with 'LAVA' - a new platform that pairs AR and audio fingerprinting tech to create music you can see. Experience our conferences! Get out from behind your screen, learn the secrets of industry leaders and connect with cool designers from all over the world https://conference.awwwards.com Subscribe now for the latest talks and interviews from top digital creatives: https://www.awwwards.com/subscribe/ For the latest web design trends - follow us: Blog: http://awwwards.com/ Twitter: http://twitter.com/awwwards Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/awwwards/ Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/awwwards/
Views: 933 awwwards.
Bill Janeway – Doing Capitalism in the Innovation Economy
 
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Bill Janeway will be discussing his latest book, Doing Capitalism in the Innovation Economy. In this fully revised and updated edition, Janeway interweaves his professional experience with political and financial history, giving a lively explanation of how successive technological revolutions have transformed the market economy, and revealing why America may yield leadership of the innovation economy to China. William H. Janeway has lived a double life of “theorist-practitioner,” according to the legendary economist Hyman Minsky, who first applied that term to him twenty-five years ago. In his role as “practitioner,” Bill Janeway has been an active growth equity investor for more than 40 years. He is a senior advisor and managing director of Warburg Pincus, where he has been responsible for building the information technology investment practice, as well as a director of Magnet Systems and O'Reilly Media. As a “theorist," he is an affiliated member of the Faculty of Economics of Cambridge University, a member of the board of directors of the Social Science Research Council and the Fields Institute for Research in the Mathematical Sciences, and of the Advisory Board of the Princeton Bendheim Center for Finance. Listen to podcast interview here: https://soundcloud.com/rhodescenter/doing-capitalism-in-the-innovation-economy
ANTHONY PATCH - CERN, THE SINGULARITY AND AI
 
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Kerry interviews Anthony Patch:    TUESDAY, JAN 23, 2018 @ 7PM PT Anthony Patch Bio: anthonypatch.com       email:  [email protected] Anthony Patch, since 1969 is a Christian Believer, and a published Author, Researcher and Speaker. He is best known for his extensive, leading-edge and revelatory research focused upon the experimentation underway in Geneva, Switzerland with the Large Hadron Collider, part of the CERN organization.  Following a 27-year career as a Paramedic out of Oakland, California, Anthony embarked upon over 20 years of research into Quantum Physics, Quantum Computing & Artificial Intelligence, and DNA modification. Since publishing his first book, Covert Catastrophe in 2013, followed in 2014 by 2048: Diamonds in the Rough, and in 2016 non-Fiction, Revising Reality; Anthony has appeared on numerous radio programs, including Ground Zero Radio with Clyde Lewis, and John B. Wells on Caravan to Midnight. He is host of The Anthony Patch Show heard daily since mid-2016 on Truth Frequency Radio.  Anthony is the Founder and Editor of Entangled Magazine, published monthly since June, 2017. KERRY CASSIDY PROJECT CAMELOT http://projectcamelot.tv
Views: 25857 Project Camelot
Sunniva Building a High-Tech Medical Cannabis Facility in Cathedral City
 
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Video of Mayor Stan Henry and Sunniva C.O.O. Duncan Gordan discussing a state-of-the-art cannabis cultivation and production facility in Cathedral City.
Microsoft Build 2019 - LIVE Stream - Day 2 (May 7)
 
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To watch more sessions and ask questions live on air head over to https://aka.ms/MicrosoftBuildLive
Views: 16217 Microsoft Developer
Episode 08: Quantum Safe Bike Watches
 
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The Magical Crypto Friends Show Episode 08: Quantum Safe Bike Watches In this episode we discuss the following topics: - Magical Crypto Conference - Riccardo's watch obsession - Quantum Resistance for Cryptocurrencies - 51% attacks on coins - Zooko's proof of eyes - Tari Got questions you want us to answer? Got topics you want us to discuss? Put them in the comments below, or Tweet at @magicalcrypto. If you're feeling generous and would like to see more cool content feel free to donate something: Bitcoin: 3NQms9Mw41QzRiLUeHqcQmw4KGffxbeM3X Litecoin: MFpH1fECensznUE79XBBqnKUKFd58KGtQF Monero: 48mcfqHkbXhM4H14W5ztC2KBfRprtEp85aQPJaqLnPLTAJ53xQJhPxEJYigcHhrF9NafPK5T3UvokQjhDMqVqGvCNMRHgZ4 Bcash: ROFL All donations will be used for the further development of the show.
Views: 18973 Magical Crypto Friends
Forex Trendy   MetaTrader 4 Tips and Tricks
 
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Views: 1209 Forex Tips & Trick
History of the Jews in the Philippines | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: History of the Jews in the Philippines Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ In case you don't find one that you were looking for, put a comment. This video uses Google TTS en-US-Standard-D voice. SUMMARY ======= Recorded Jewish history in the Philippines started during the Spanish period.
Views: 216 wikipedia tts
First Bi-Monthly Monetary Policy Press Conference 2018-2019, Thursday, April 05, 2018
 
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Governor, Reserve Bank of India’s Press Conference
Views: 4865 Reserve Bank of India
Election Data Summit
 
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The U.S. Election Assistance Commission and Pennsylvania Department of State will host an Election Data Summit at the Community College of Philadelphia from 9 a.m. - 5 p.m. on Thursday, July 12, 2018. The gathering will take place prior to the National Association of Secretaries of State (NASS) and National Association of State Election Directors (NASED) summer conferences in Philadelphia. This unique summit will bring together some of the nation's most respected election data experts to examine ways election officials can use all types of data to improve processes and inform decision making. Each of the summit's four panels will focus on a distinct aspect of the election cycle and explore different sources for election data, including voter registration databases, electronic poll books, voting equipment, and post-election audits. This event is open to the public and the media. RSVPs are required and space is limited. Additional information regarding speakers is forthcoming. Thursday, July, 12, 2018 Time: 09:00 AM - 05:00 PM Community College of Philadelphia 1700 Spring Garden St Philadephia, PA 33131 202-897-9285 Contact: Brenda Bowser Soder [email protected]
Software protection dongle | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Software_protection_dongle 00:01:15 1 History 00:05:03 1.1 Usage 00:08:17 1.2 Issues 00:10:38 2 Game consoles 00:11:37 3 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.8131981560912386 Voice name: en-US-Wavenet-D "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= A software protection dongle (commonly known as a dongle or key) is an electronic copy protection and content protection device which, when attached to a computer or other electronic appliance, unlocks software functionality or decodes content. The hardware key is programmed with a product key or other cryptographic protection mechanism; it attaches via electrical connector to an external bus of the computer or appliance.When used as a software protection device, dongles mostly appear as two-interface security tokens with transient data flow that does not interfere with other dongle functions and a pull communication that reads security data from the dongle. Without the dongle, the software may run only in a restricted mode, or not at all. When used as a device attached to a computer or TV or gaming console, dongles can enable functions that would not be present without it. For example, a dongle attached to a TV may receive an encoded video stream, decode it in the dongle, and then present this audio and video information to the TV.
Views: 5 wikipedia tts
House Education Finance Committee  3/22/18
 
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00:46 - HF1708 (Knoblach) Promise Neighborhood of Central Minnesota programming expansion grant authorized, report required, and money appropriated. 10:22 - HF3354 (Haley) Education partnership program modified, and future grant priority established. 26:54 - HF3796 (Loon) School safety facility grants authorized for school districts to enhance safety for students and staff, bonds issued, and money appropriate. 35:09 - HF3206 (Fenton) Grow Your Own pathways to teacher licensure program funding increased, and money appropriated. 53:45 - HF3594 (Koznick) Increase Teachers of Color Act strengthened; percentage of teachers of color and American Indian teachers increased above four percent and percentage of diverse teacher candidates above ten percent by 2020; report required; and money appropriated. 1:24:46 - HF3887 (Moran) Northstar Digital Literacy upgrade funding provided, and money appropriated. Runs 1 hour, 35 minutes. * Connect with House Public Information Services: www.house.mn/hinfo/hinfo.asp * Find Minnesota House of Representatives news and updates at Session Daily: www.house.mn/sessiondaily/ *Connect with the Minnesota House of Representatives: www.house.mn
Views: 63 MNHouseInfo
Modular arithmetic
 
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In mathematics, modular arithmetic is a system of arithmetic for integers, where numbers "wrap around" upon reaching a certain value—the modulus. The modern approach to modular arithmetic was developed by Carl Friedrich Gauss in his book Disquisitiones Arithmeticae, published in 1801. A familiar use of modular arithmetic is in the 12-hour clock, in which the day is divided into two 12-hour periods. If the time is 7:00 now, then 8 hours later it will be 3:00. Usual addition would suggest that the later time should be 7 + 8 = 15, but this is not the answer because clock time "wraps around" every 12 hours; in 12-hour time, there is no "15 o'clock". Likewise, if the clock starts at 12:00 (noon) and 21 hours elapse, then the time will be 9:00 the next day, rather than 33:00. Since the hour number starts over after it reaches 12, this is arithmetic modulo 12. 12 is congruent not only to 12 itself, but also to 0, so the time called "12:00" could also be called "0:00", since 12 is congruent to 0 modulo 12. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 631 Audiopedia
Photon
 
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A photon is an elementary particle, the quantum of light and all other forms of electromagnetic radiation, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force, even when static via virtual photons. The effects of this force are easily observable at both the microscopic and macroscopic level, because the photon has zero rest mass; this allows long distance interactions. Like all elementary particles, photons are currently best explained by quantum mechanics and exhibit wave–particle duality, exhibiting properties of both waves and particles. For example, a single photon may be refracted by a lens or exhibit wave interference with itself, but also act as a particle giving a definite result when its position is measured. The modern photon concept was developed gradually by Albert Einstein to explain experimental observations that did not fit the classical wave model of light. In particular, the photon model accounted for the frequency dependence of light's energy, and explained the ability of matter and radiation to be in thermal equilibrium. It also accounted for anomalous observations, including the properties of black-body radiation, that other physicists, most notably Max Planck, had sought to explain using semiclassical models, in which light is still described by Maxwell's equations, but the material objects that emit and absorb light do so in amounts of energy that are quantized (i.e., they change energy only by certain particular discrete amounts and cannot change energy in any arbitrary way). Although these semiclassical models contributed to the development of quantum mechanics, many further experiments starting with Compton scattering of single photons by electrons, first observed in 1923, validated Einstein's hypothesis that light itself is quantized. In 1926 the optical physicist Frithiof Wolfers and the chemist Gilbert N. Lewis coined the name photon for these particles, and after 1927, when Arthur H. Compton won the Nobel Prize for his scattering studies, most scientists accepted the validity that quanta of light have an independent existence, and the term photon for light quanta was accepted. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 745 Audiopedia
Software protection dongle
 
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A software protection dongle (commonly known as a dongle or key) is an electronic copy protection and content protection device which, when attached to a computer or other electronic appliance, unlocks software functionality or decodes content. The hardware key is programmed with a product key or other cryptographic protection mechanism; it attaches via electrical connector to an external bus of the computer or appliance. When used as a software protection device, dongles mostly appear as two-interface security tokens with transient data flow that does not interfere with other dongle functions and a pull communication that reads security data from the dongle. Without the dongle, the software may run only in a restricted mode, or not at all. When used as a device attached to a computer or TV or gaming console, dongles can enable functions that would not be present without it. For example, a dongle attached to a TV may receive an encoded video stream, decode it in the dongle, and then present this audio and video information to the TV. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 3294 Audiopedia
Private biometrics | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Private_biometrics 00:01:12 1 Background 00:02:49 2 Fully homomorphic cryptosystems for biometrics 00:04:38 2.1 Accuracy: same as plaintext (99%) 00:06:11 2.2 Speed: polynomial search (same as plaintext) 00:07:13 2.3 Privacy: full compliance with privacy regulations worldwide 00:08:52 3 One-way encryption, history and modern use 00:09:21 3.1 History 00:10:39 3.2 Modern use 00:12:46 3.2.1 First production implementation 00:14:43 3.3 Compliance 00:15:37 3.3.1 IEEE Biometric Open Protocol Standard (BOPS III) 00:16:30 3.3.2 Discussion: passive encryption and data security compliance 00:17:27 3.3.3 US DoD Standard Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria (TCSEC) 00:19:24 3.3.3.1 Multiple Independent Levels of Security/Safety (MILS) architecture 00:21:40 4 History 00:21:49 4.1 Implicit authentication and private equality testing 00:23:04 4.2 Homomorphic encryption 00:25:43 4.3 Prior approaches used to solve private biometrics 00:26:47 4.3.1 Feature transformation approach 00:30:45 4.3.2 Biometric cryptosystem approach 00:32:46 4.3.3 Two-way partially homomorphic encryption approach 00:33:37 5 See also 00:34:01 6 External links Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.8179988664429793 Voice name: en-GB-Wavenet-B "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Private biometrics is a form of encrypted biometrics, also called privacy-preserving biometric authentication methods, in which the biometric payload is a one-way, homomorphically encrypted feature vector that is 0.05% the size of the original biometric template and can be searched with full accuracy, speed and privacy. The feature vector’s homomorphic encryption allows search and match to be conducted in polynomial time on an encrypted dataset and the search result is returned as an encrypted match. One or more computing devices may use an encrypted feature vector to verify an individual person (1:1 verify) or identify an individual in a datastore (1:many identify) without storing, sending or receiving plaintext biometric data within or between computing devices or any other entity. The purpose of private biometrics is to allow a person to be identified or authenticated while guaranteeing individual privacy and fundamental human rights by only operating on biometric data in the encrypted space.
Views: 3 wikipedia tts
Trapezous | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Trapezous Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Trabzon (Turkish pronunciation: [ˈtɾɑbzon]), historically known as Trebizond, is a city on the Black Sea coast of northeastern Turkey and the capital of Trabzon Province. Trabzon, located on the historical Silk Road, became a melting pot of religions, languages and culture for centuries and a trade gateway to Persia in the southeast and the Caucasus to the northeast. The Venetian and Genoese merchants paid visits to Trebizond during the medieval period and sold silk, linen and woolen fabric; the Republic of Genoa had an important merchant colony within the city called Leonkastron that played a role to Trebizond similar to the one Galata played to Constantinople (modern Istanbul). Trabzon formed the basis of several states in its long history and was the capital city of the Empire of Trebizond between 1204 and 1461. During the early modern period, Trabzon, because of the importance of its port, again became a focal point of trade to Persia and the Caucasus.
Views: 19 wikipedia tts
Radar | Wikipedia audio article
 
01:12:57
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Radar Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Radar is a detection system that uses radio waves to determine the range, angle, or velocity of objects. It can be used to detect aircraft, ships, spacecraft, guided missiles, motor vehicles, weather formations, and terrain. A radar system consists of a transmitter producing electromagnetic waves in the radio or microwaves domain, a transmitting antenna, a receiving antenna (often the same antenna is used for transmitting and receiving) and a receiver and processor to determine properties of the object(s). Radio waves (pulsed or continuous) from the transmitter reflect off the object and return to the receiver, giving information about the object's location and speed. Radar was developed secretly for military use by several nations in the period before and during World War II. A key development was the cavity magnetron in the UK, which allowed the creation of relatively small systems with sub-meter resolution. The term RADAR was coined in 1940 by the United States Navy as an acronym for RAdio Detection And Ranging or RAdio Direction And Ranging. The term radar has since entered English and other languages as a common noun, losing all capitalization. The modern uses of radar are highly diverse, including air and terrestrial traffic control, radar astronomy, air-defence systems, antimissile systems, marine radars to locate landmarks and other ships, aircraft anticollision systems, ocean surveillance systems, outer space surveillance and rendezvous systems, meteorological precipitation monitoring, altimetry and flight control systems, guided missile target locating systems, ground-penetrating radar for geological observations, and range-controlled radar for public health surveillance. High tech radar systems are associated with digital signal processing, machine learning and are capable of extracting useful information from very high noise levels. Other systems similar to radar make use of other parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. One example is "lidar", which uses predominantly infrared light from lasers rather than radio waves.
Views: 65 wikipedia tts
Photon
 
47:54
A photon is an elementary particle, the quantum of light and all other forms of electromagnetic radiation, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force, even when static via virtual photons. The effects of this force are easily observable at both the microscopic and macroscopic level, because the photon has zero rest mass; this allows long distance interactions. Like all elementary particles, photons are currently best explained by quantum mechanics and exhibit wave--particle duality, exhibiting properties of both waves and particles. For example, a single photon may be refracted by a lens or exhibit wave interference with itself, but also act as a particle giving a definite result when its position is measured. This video targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Public domain image source in video
Views: 353 encyclopediacc
Photon | Wikipedia audio article
 
57:08
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Photon 00:03:09 1 Nomenclature 00:05:40 2 Physical properties 00:07:22 2.1 Experimental checks on photon mass 00:08:47 3 Historical development 00:08:58 4 Einstein's light quantum 00:11:58 5 Early objections 00:13:56 6 Wave–particle duality and uncertainty principles 00:15:59 7 Bose–Einstein model of a photon gas 00:17:53 8 Stimulated and spontaneous emission 00:18:54 9 Second quantization and high energy photon interactions 00:21:44 10 The hadronic properties of the photon 00:28:51 11 The photon as a gauge boson 00:30:10 12 Contributions to the mass of a system 00:39:20 13 Photons in matter 00:45:36 14 Technological applications 00:46:46 15 Recent research 00:48:53 16 See also 00:50:56 17 Notes 00:52:56 18 References 00:55:45 19 Additional references 00:56:55 20 External links Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles). The photon has zero rest mass and always moves at the speed of light within a vacuum. Like all elementary particles, photons are currently best explained by quantum mechanics and exhibit wave–particle duality, exhibiting properties of both waves and particles. For example, a single photon may be refracted by a lens and exhibit wave interference with itself, and it can behave as a particle with definite and finite measurable position or momentum, though not both at the same time. The photon's wave and quantum qualities are two observable aspects of a single phenomenon – they cannot be described by any mechanical model; a representation of this dual property of light that assumes certain points on the wavefront to be the seat of the energy is not possible. The quanta in a light wave are not spatially localized. The modern concept of the photon was developed gradually by Albert Einstein in the early 20th century to explain experimental observations that did not fit the classical wave model of light. The benefit of the photon model is that it accounts for the frequency dependence of light's energy, and explains the ability of matter and electromagnetic radiation to be in thermal equilibrium. The photon model accounts for anomalous observations, including the properties of black-body radiation, that others (notably Max Planck) had tried to explain using semiclassical models. In that model, light is described by Maxwell's equations, but material objects emit and absorb light in quantized amounts (i.e., they change energy only by certain particular discrete amounts). Although these semiclassical models contributed to the development of quantum mechanics, many further experiments beginning with the phenomenon of Compton scattering of single photons by electrons, validated Einstein's hypothesis that light itself is quantized. In 1926 the optical physicist Frithiof Wolfers and the chemist Gilbert N. Lewis coined the name "photon" for these particles. After Arthur H. Compton won the Nobel Prize in 1927 for his scattering studies, most scientists accepted that light quanta have an independent existence, and the term "photon" was accepted. In the Standard Model of particle physics, photons and other elementary particles are described as a necessary consequence of physical laws having a certain symmetry at every point in spacetime. The intrinsic properties of particles, such as charge, mass, and spin, are determined by this gauge symmetry. The photon concept has led to momentous advances in experimental and theoretical physics, including lasers, Bose–Einstein condensation, quantum field theory, and the probabilistic interpretation of quantum mechanics. It has been applied to photochemistry, high-resolution microscopy, and measurements of molecular distances. Recently, photons have been studied as elements of quantum computers, and for applications in optical imaging and ...
Views: 8 wikipedia tts
Photon | Wikipedia audio article
 
57:20
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Photon 00:03:11 1 Nomenclature 00:05:43 2 Physical properties 00:07:28 2.1 Experimental checks on photon mass 00:08:53 3 Historical development 00:09:04 4 Einstein's light quantum 00:12:05 5 Early objections 00:14:03 6 Wave–particle duality and uncertainty principles 00:16:07 7 Bose–Einstein model of a photon gas 00:18:00 8 Stimulated and spontaneous emission 00:19:01 9 Second quantization and high energy photon interactions 00:21:51 10 The hadronic properties of the photon 00:29:00 11 The photon as a gauge boson 00:30:19 12 Contributions to the mass of a system 00:39:31 13 Photons in matter 00:45:47 14 Technological applications 00:46:57 15 Recent research 00:49:04 16 See also 00:51:08 17 Notes 00:53:08 18 References 00:55:56 19 Additional references 00:57:06 20 External links Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "There is only one good, knowledge, and one evil, ignorance." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles). The photon has zero rest mass and always moves at the speed of light within a vacuum. Like all elementary particles, photons are currently best explained by quantum mechanics and exhibit wave–particle duality, exhibiting properties of both waves and particles. For example, a single photon may be refracted by a lens and exhibit wave interference with itself, and it can behave as a particle with definite and finite measurable position or momentum, though not both at the same time as per the Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. The photon's wave and quantum qualities are two observable aspects of a single phenomenon – they cannot be described by any mechanical model; a representation of this dual property of light that assumes certain points on the wavefront to be the seat of the energy is not possible. The quanta in a light wave are not spatially localized. The modern concept of the photon was developed gradually by Albert Einstein in the early 20th century to explain experimental observations that did not fit the classical wave model of light. The benefit of the photon model is that it accounts for the frequency dependence of light's energy, and explains the ability of matter and electromagnetic radiation to be in thermal equilibrium. The photon model accounts for anomalous observations, including the properties of black-body radiation, that others (notably Max Planck) had tried to explain using semiclassical models. In that model, light is described by Maxwell's equations, but material objects emit and absorb light in quantized amounts (i.e., they change energy only by certain particular discrete amounts). Although these semiclassical models contributed to the development of quantum mechanics, many further experiments beginning with the phenomenon of Compton scattering of single photons by electrons, validated Einstein's hypothesis that light itself is quantized. In 1926 the optical physicist Frithiof Wolfers and the chemist Gilbert N. Lewis coined the name "photon" for these particles. After Arthur H. Compton won the Nobel Prize in 1927 for his scattering studies, most scientists accepted that light quanta have an independent existence, and the term "photon" was accepted. In the Standard Model of particle physics, photons and other elementary particles are described as a necessary consequence of physical laws having a certain symmetry at every point in spacetime. The intrinsic properties of particles, such as charge, mass, and spin, are determined by this gauge symmetry. The photon concept has led to momentous advances in experimental and theoretical physics, including lasers, Bose–Einstein condensation, quantum field theory, and the probabilistic interpretation of quantum mechanics. It has been applied to photochemistry, high-res ...
Views: 3 wikipedia tts
Photons | Wikipedia audio article
 
57:20
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Photon 00:03:11 1 Nomenclature 00:05:43 2 Physical properties 00:07:28 2.1 Experimental checks on photon mass 00:08:53 3 Historical development 00:09:04 4 Einstein's light quantum 00:12:05 5 Early objections 00:14:03 6 Wave–particle duality and uncertainty principles 00:16:07 7 Bose–Einstein model of a photon gas 00:18:00 8 Stimulated and spontaneous emission 00:19:01 9 Second quantization and high energy photon interactions 00:21:51 10 The hadronic properties of the photon 00:29:00 11 The photon as a gauge boson 00:30:19 12 Contributions to the mass of a system 00:39:31 13 Photons in matter 00:45:47 14 Technological applications 00:46:57 15 Recent research 00:49:04 16 See also 00:51:08 17 Notes 00:53:08 18 References 00:55:56 19 Additional references 00:57:06 20 External links Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "There is only one good, knowledge, and one evil, ignorance." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles). The photon has zero rest mass and always moves at the speed of light within a vacuum. Like all elementary particles, photons are currently best explained by quantum mechanics and exhibit wave–particle duality, exhibiting properties of both waves and particles. For example, a single photon may be refracted by a lens and exhibit wave interference with itself, and it can behave as a particle with definite and finite measurable position or momentum, though not both at the same time as per the Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. The photon's wave and quantum qualities are two observable aspects of a single phenomenon – they cannot be described by any mechanical model; a representation of this dual property of light that assumes certain points on the wavefront to be the seat of the energy is not possible. The quanta in a light wave are not spatially localized. The modern concept of the photon was developed gradually by Albert Einstein in the early 20th century to explain experimental observations that did not fit the classical wave model of light. The benefit of the photon model is that it accounts for the frequency dependence of light's energy, and explains the ability of matter and electromagnetic radiation to be in thermal equilibrium. The photon model accounts for anomalous observations, including the properties of black-body radiation, that others (notably Max Planck) had tried to explain using semiclassical models. In that model, light is described by Maxwell's equations, but material objects emit and absorb light in quantized amounts (i.e., they change energy only by certain particular discrete amounts). Although these semiclassical models contributed to the development of quantum mechanics, many further experiments beginning with the phenomenon of Compton scattering of single photons by electrons, validated Einstein's hypothesis that light itself is quantized. In 1926 the optical physicist Frithiof Wolfers and the chemist Gilbert N. Lewis coined the name "photon" for these particles. After Arthur H. Compton won the Nobel Prize in 1927 for his scattering studies, most scientists accepted that light quanta have an independent existence, and the term "photon" was accepted. In the Standard Model of particle physics, photons and other elementary particles are described as a necessary consequence of physical laws having a certain symmetry at every point in spacetime. The intrinsic properties of particles, such as charge, mass, and spin, are determined by this gauge symmetry. The photon concept has led to momentous advances in experimental and theoretical physics, including lasers, Bose–Einstein condensation, quantum field theory, and the probabilistic interpretation of quantum mechanics. It has been applied to photochemistry, high-res ...
Views: 12 wikipedia tts
Parallel computing | Wikipedia audio article
 
51:36
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parallel_computing 00:02:47 1 Background 00:04:42 1.1 Amdahl's law and Gustafson's law 00:06:44 1.2 Dependencies 00:09:05 1.3 Race conditions, mutual exclusion, synchronization, and parallel slowdown 00:12:24 1.4 Fine-grained, coarse-grained, and embarrassing parallelism 00:16:01 1.5 Consistency models 00:16:44 1.6 Flynn's taxonomy 00:18:55 2 Types of parallelism 00:20:33 2.1 Bit-level parallelism 00:20:43 2.2 Instruction-level parallelism 00:22:19 2.3 Task parallelism 00:23:12 3 Hardware 00:24:01 3.1 Memory and communication 00:24:10 3.2 Classes of parallel computers 00:27:08 3.2.1 Multi-core computing 00:27:39 3.2.2 Symmetric multiprocessing 00:29:08 3.2.3 Distributed computing 00:29:53 3.2.3.1 Cluster computing 00:30:40 3.2.3.2 Massively parallel computing 00:32:19 3.2.3.3 Grid computing 00:33:19 3.2.4 Specialized parallel computers 00:34:24 3.2.4.1 Reconfigurable computing with field-programmable gate arrays 00:34:48 3.2.4.2 General-purpose computing on graphics processing units (GPGPU) 00:36:15 3.2.4.3 Application-specific integrated circuits 00:37:47 3.2.4.4 Vector processors 00:39:11 4 Software 00:39:35 4.1 Parallel programming languages 00:40:18 4.2 Automatic parallelization 00:40:27 4.3 Application checkpointing 00:42:39 5 Algorithmic methods 00:43:33 6 Fault tolerance 00:44:27 7 History 00:45:50 8 Biological brain as massively parallel computer 00:46:39 9 See also 00:49:24 10 References 00:50:51 11 Further reading Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.9277831149877049 Voice name: en-US-Wavenet-E "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Parallel computing is a type of computation in which many calculations or the execution of processes are carried out simultaneously. Large problems can often be divided into smaller ones, which can then be solved at the same time. There are several different forms of parallel computing: bit-level, instruction-level, data, and task parallelism. Parallelism has long been employed in high-performance computing, but it's gaining broader interest due to the physical constraints preventing frequency scaling. As power consumption (and consequently heat generation) by computers has become a concern in recent years, parallel computing has become the dominant paradigm in computer architecture, mainly in the form of multi-core processors.Parallel computing is closely related to concurrent computing—they are frequently used together, and often conflated, though the two are distinct: it is possible to have parallelism without concurrency (such as bit-level parallelism), and concurrency without parallelism (such as multitasking by time-sharing on a single-core CPU). In parallel computing, a computational task is typically broken down into several, often many, very similar subtasks that can be processed independently and whose results are combined afterwards, upon completion. In contrast, in concurrent computing, the various processes often do not address related tasks; when they do, as is typical in distributed computing, the separate tasks may have a varied nature and often require some inter-process communication during execution. Parallel computers can be roughly classified according to the level at which the hardware supports parallelism, with multi-core and multi-processor computers having multiple processing elements within a single machine, while clusters, MPPs, and grids use multiple computers to work on the same task. Specialized parallel computer architectures are sometimes used alongside traditional processors, for accelerating specific tasks. In some cases parallelism is transparent to the programmer, such as in bit-level or instruction-level parallelism, but explicitly parallel algorithms, particularly those that use concurrency, are more difficult to write than sequential ones, because concurrency introduces several new classes of potential software bugs, of which r ...
Views: 10 wikipedia tts
Index of electrical engineering articles | Wikipedia audio article
 
01:07:34
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Index_of_electrical_engineering_articles 00:00:22 A 00:03:53 B 00:05:04 C 00:10:25 D 00:13:34 E 00:19:31 F 00:21:44 G 00:23:08 H 00:25:04 I 00:28:08 J 00:28:29 K 00:28:55 L 00:30:56 M 00:32:43 N 00:34:28 O 00:35:42 P 00:40:36 Q 00:41:01 R 00:43:52 S 00:46:55 T 00:50:39 U 00:51:22 V 00:53:04 W 00:54:01 X 00:54:11 Y 00:54:26 Z 00:54:48 Biographies 00:54:57 A 00:55:28 B 00:56:32 C 00:57:07 D 00:57:51 E 00:58:19 F 00:59:12 G 00:59:42 H 01:00:40 I 01:00:50 J 01:01:02 K 01:01:37 L 01:02:06 M 01:02:46 N 01:03:06 O 01:03:24 P 01:04:01 R 01:04:37 S 01:05:29 T 01:06:01 V 01:06:27 W 01:07:01 Y 01:07:16 Z Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.7597601450007543 Voice name: en-AU-Wavenet-D "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= This is an alphabetical list of articles pertaining specifically to electrical and electronics engineering. For a thematic list, please see List of electrical engineering topics. For a broad overview of engineering, see List of engineering topics. For biographies, see List of engineers.
Views: 50 wikipedia tts
Science and technology in Venezuela | Wikipedia audio article
 
02:17:50
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Science_and_technology_in_Venezuela 00:03:04 1 Biology 00:03:13 1.1 Ecology 00:15:45 1.2 Epidemiology 00:25:24 1.3 Microbiology 00:29:30 1.4 Immunology 00:34:59 2 Chemistry 00:35:07 2.1 Electro-chemistry 00:37:52 2.2 Food chemistry 00:41:27 2.3 Inorganic chemistry 00:45:04 2.4 Organic chemistry 00:50:56 3 Engineering 00:51:05 3.1 Civil engineering 00:53:29 3.2 Hydraulic engineering 00:54:48 3.3 Food engineering 00:57:28 3.4 Structural engineering 00:59:38 3.5 Petroleum engineering 01:01:01 4 Inventors 01:14:48 5 Mathematics 01:14:57 5.1 Calculus 01:24:00 6 Medicine 01:24:09 6.1 Experimental medicine 01:31:21 6.2 Internal medicine 01:35:25 6.3 Surgery 01:44:10 7 Physics 01:44:19 7.1 Astrophysics 01:49:01 7.2 Particle physics 01:51:45 7.3 Theoretical physics 01:53:27 8 Social sciences 01:53:36 8.1 Education 01:56:20 8.2 Sociology 02:01:11 8.3 Science journalism 02:03:31 9 Technology 02:03:40 9.1 Computer science 02:11:10 9.2 Materials Technology 02:13:18 10 Scientific institutions 02:17:29 11 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.7382326410246569 Voice name: en-AU-Wavenet-D "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Science and technology in Venezuela includes research based on exploring Venezuela's diverse ecology and the lives of its indigenous peoples. Under the Spanish rule, the monarchy made very little effort to promote education in the American colonies and in particular in those in which they had less commercial interest, as in Venezuela. The country only had its first university some two hundred years later than Mexico, Colombia or Peru. The first studies on the native languages of Venezuela and the indigenous customs were made in the middle of the XVIII century by the Catholic missionaries. The Italian Jesuit Filippo Salvatore Gilii was one of the first to theorize about linguistic relations and propose possible language families for the Orinoco river basin. The Swedish botanist Pehr Löfling, one of the 12 Apostles of Carl Linnaeus, classificated for the first time the exhuberant tropical flora of the Orinoco river basin. In the XIX century several scientists visited Venezuela such as Alexander Humboldt, Aimé Bonpland, Agostino Codazzi, Jean-Baptiste Boussingault, Mariano Rivero, François de Pons, Robert Hermann Schomburgk, Wilhelm Sievers, Carl Ferdinand Appun, Gustav Karsten, Adolf Ernst, Benedikt Roezl, Karl Moritz, Friedrich Gerstäcker, Anton Goering, Johann Gottlieb Benjamin Siegert, Alfred Russel Wallace, Jean Chaffanjon, Émile-Arthur Thouar, Jules Crevaux and many others, some of whom are buried in Venezuela. The Venezuelan Institute for Scientific Research (IVIC) founded on February 9, 1959 by government decree, has its origins in the Venezuelan Institute of Neurology and Brain Research (IVNIC) which Dr. Humberto Fernandez Moran founded in 1955. Other major research institutions include the Central University of Venezuela and the University of the Andes, Venezuela. Notable Venezuelan scientists include nineteenth century physician José María Vargas , the chemist Vicente Marcano and the botanist and geographer Alfredo Jahn (1867–1940). More recently, Baruj Benacerraf shared the 1980 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, Augusto Pi Sunyer (1955), Aristides Bastidas (1980), Marcel Roche (1987) and Marisela Salvatierra (2002) have been recipients of UNESCO's Kalinga Prize for promotion of the public understanding of science. On July 2, 2012, L. Rafael Reif – a Venezuelan American electrical engineer, inventor and academic administrator – was elected president of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Views: 153 wikipedia tts
Light quantum | Wikipedia audio article
 
01:14:05
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Photon 00:04:10 1 Nomenclature 00:07:36 2 Physical properties 00:09:52 2.1 Experimental checks on photon mass 00:11:38 3 Historical development 00:11:49 4 Einstein's light quantum 00:15:46 5 Early objections 00:18:20 6 Wave–particle duality and uncertainty principles 00:21:01 7 Bose–Einstein model of a photon gas 00:23:26 8 Stimulated and spontaneous emission 00:24:44 9 Second quantization and high energy photon interactions 00:28:25 10 The hadronic properties of the photon 00:37:43 11 The photon as a gauge boson 00:39:24 12 Contributions to the mass of a system 00:51:09 13 Photons in matter 00:59:18 14 Technological applications 01:00:48 15 Recent research 01:03:32 16 See also 01:06:10 17 Notes 01:08:47 18 References 01:12:22 19 Further reading 01:13:51 20 External links Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.7960392900452892 Voice name: en-US-Wavenet-E "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles). Invariant mass of the photon is zero; it always moves at the speed of light within a vacuum. Like all elementary particles, photons are currently best explained by quantum mechanics and exhibit wave–particle duality, exhibiting properties of both waves and particles. For example, a single photon may be refracted by a lens and exhibit wave interference with itself, and it can behave as a particle with definite and finite measurable position or momentum, though not both at the same time as per Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. The photon's wave and quantum qualities are two observable aspects of a single phenomenon—they cannot be described by any mechanical model; a representation of this dual property of light that assumes certain points on the wavefront to be the seat of the energy is not possible. The quanta in a light wave are not spatially localized. The modern concept of the photon was developed gradually by Albert Einstein in the early 20th century to explain experimental observations that did not fit the classical wave model of light. The benefit of the photon model is that it accounts for the frequency dependence of light's energy, and explains the ability of matter and electromagnetic radiation to be in thermal equilibrium. The photon model accounts for anomalous observations, including the properties of black-body radiation, that others (notably Max Planck) had tried to explain using semiclassical models. In that model, light is described by Maxwell's equations, but material objects emit and absorb light in quantized amounts (i.e., they change energy only by certain particular discrete amounts). Although these semiclassical models contributed to the development of quantum mechanics, many further experiments beginning with the phenomenon of Compton scattering of single photons by electrons, validated Einstein's hypothesis that light itself is quantized. In December 1926, American physical chemist Gilbert N. Lewis coined the widely-adopted name "photon" for these particles in a letter to Nature. After Arthur H. Compton won the Nobel Prize in 1927 for his scattering studies, most scientists accepted that light quanta have an independent existence, and the term "photon" was accepted. In the Standard Model of particle physics, photons and other elementary particles are described as a necessary consequence of physical laws having a certain symmetry at every point in spacetime. The intrinsic properties of particles, such as charge, mass, and spin, are determined by this gauge symmetry. The photon concept has led to momentous advances in experimental and theoretical physics, including lasers, Bose–Einstein condensation, quantum field theory, and the probabilistic interpretation ...
Views: 2 wikipedia tts
Photon | Wikipedia audio article | Wikipedia audio article
 
56:32
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Photon | Wikipedia audio article Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles). The photon has zero rest mass and always moves at the speed of light within a vacuum. Like all elementary particles, photons are currently best explained by quantum mechanics and exhibit wave–particle duality, exhibiting properties of both waves and particles. For example, a single photon may be refracted by a lens and exhibit wave interference with itself, and it can behave as a particle with definite and finite measurable position or momentum, though not both at the same time. The photon's wave and quantum qualities are two observable aspects of a single phenomenon – they cannot be described by any mechanical model; a representation of this dual property of light that assumes certain points on the wavefront to be the seat of the energy is not possible. The quanta in a light wave are not spatially localized. The modern concept of the photon was developed gradually by Albert Einstein in the early 20th century to explain experimental observations that did not fit the classical wave model of light. The benefit of the photon model is that it accounts for the frequency dependence of light's energy, and explains the ability of matter and electromagnetic radiation to be in thermal equilibrium. The photon model accounts for anomalous observations, including the properties of black-body radiation, that others (notably Max Planck) had tried to explain using semiclassical models. In that model, light is described by Maxwell's equations, but material objects emit and absorb light in quantized amounts (i.e., they change energy only by certain particular discrete amounts). Although these semiclassical models contributed to the development of quantum mechanics, many further experiments beginning with the phenomenon of Compton scattering of single photons by electrons, validated Einstein's hypothesis that light itself is quantized. In 1926 the optical physicist Frithiof Wolfers and the chemist Gilbert N. Lewis coined the name "photon" for these particles. After Arthur H. Compton won the Nobel Prize in 1927 for his scattering studies, most scientists accepted that light quanta have an independent existence, and the term "photon" was accepted. In the Standard Model of particle physics, photons and other elementary particles are described as a necessary consequence of physical laws having a certain symmetry at every point in spacetime. The intrinsic properties of particles, such as charge, mass, and spin, are determined by this gauge symmetry. The photon concept has led to momentous advances in experimental and theoretical physics, including lasers, Bose–Einstein condensation, quantum field theory, and the probabilistic interpretation of quantum mechanics. It has been applied to photochemistry, high-resolution microscopy, and measurements of molecular distances. Recently, photons have been studied as elements of quantum computers, and for applications in optical imaging and optical communication such as quantum cryptography.
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History of the Jews in the Philippines | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: History of the Jews in the Philippines Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Recorded Jewish history in the Philippines started during the Spanish period.
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Light quanta | Wikipedia audio article
 
01:07:21
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Photon 00:03:49 1 Nomenclature 00:06:56 2 Physical properties 00:09:00 2.1 Experimental checks on photon mass 00:10:37 3 Historical development 00:10:48 4 Einstein's light quantum 00:14:21 5 Early objections 00:16:41 6 Wave–particle duality and uncertainty principles 00:19:05 7 Bose–Einstein model of a photon gas 00:21:17 8 Stimulated and spontaneous emission 00:22:28 9 Second quantization and high energy photon interactions 00:25:48 10 The hadronic properties of the photon 00:34:14 11 The photon as a gauge boson 00:35:47 12 Contributions to the mass of a system 00:46:28 13 Photons in matter 00:53:50 14 Technological applications 00:55:12 15 Recent research 00:57:40 16 See also 01:00:04 17 Notes 01:02:27 18 References 01:05:45 19 Further reading 01:07:06 20 External links Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.886443036322472 Voice name: en-GB-Wavenet-D "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles). Invariant mass of the photon is zero; it always moves at the speed of light within a vacuum. Like all elementary particles, photons are currently best explained by quantum mechanics and exhibit wave–particle duality, exhibiting properties of both waves and particles. For example, a single photon may be refracted by a lens and exhibit wave interference with itself, and it can behave as a particle with definite and finite measurable position or momentum, though not both at the same time as per Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. The photon's wave and quantum qualities are two observable aspects of a single phenomenon—they cannot be described by any mechanical model; a representation of this dual property of light that assumes certain points on the wavefront to be the seat of the energy is not possible. The quanta in a light wave are not spatially localized. The modern concept of the photon was developed gradually by Albert Einstein in the early 20th century to explain experimental observations that did not fit the classical wave model of light. The benefit of the photon model is that it accounts for the frequency dependence of light's energy, and explains the ability of matter and electromagnetic radiation to be in thermal equilibrium. The photon model accounts for anomalous observations, including the properties of black-body radiation, that others (notably Max Planck) had tried to explain using semiclassical models. In that model, light is described by Maxwell's equations, but material objects emit and absorb light in quantized amounts (i.e., they change energy only by certain particular discrete amounts). Although these semiclassical models contributed to the development of quantum mechanics, many further experiments beginning with the phenomenon of Compton scattering of single photons by electrons, validated Einstein's hypothesis that light itself is quantized. In December 1926, American physical chemist Gilbert N. Lewis coined the widely-adopted name "photon" for these particles in a letter to Nature. After Arthur H. Compton won the Nobel Prize in 1927 for his scattering studies, most scientists accepted that light quanta have an independent existence, and the term "photon" was accepted. In the Standard Model of particle physics, photons and other elementary particles are described as a necessary consequence of physical laws having a certain symmetry at every point in spacetime. The intrinsic properties of particles, such as charge, mass, and spin, are determined by this gauge symmetry. The photon concept has led to momentous advances in experimental and theoretical physics, including lasers, Bose–Einstein condensation, quantum field theory, and the probabilistic interpretation ...
Views: 2 wikipedia tts
Signals intelligence by alliances, nations and industries | Wikipedia audio article
 
01:05:38
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Signals_intelligence_by_alliances,_nations_and_industries 00:00:32 1 Multilateral SIGINT 00:01:49 1.1 UKUSA Agreement 00:02:53 1.2 ECHELON 00:06:59 1.2.1 Confirmation of ECHELON 00:08:30 1.3 NATO 00:08:55 1.4 ASEAN and related groups 00:14:22 1.5 Other coalitions 00:14:50 2 National SIGINT 00:15:00 2.1 Australia 00:15:27 2.2 Canada 00:15:54 2.3 China 00:19:40 2.4 Cuba 00:21:08 2.5 Denmark 00:26:38 2.6 Finland 00:27:01 2.7 France 00:27:48 2.8 Germany 00:28:35 2.9 Greece 00:29:57 2.10 India 00:30:32 2.11 Ireland 00:31:16 2.12 Israel 00:31:36 2.13 Japan 00:32:27 2.14 Jordan 00:33:02 2.15 New Zealand 00:36:24 2.16 Norway 00:37:09 2.17 Russia 00:39:54 2.18 Spain 00:42:14 2.19 Sweden 00:42:58 2.20 Switzerland 00:44:43 2.21 United Kingdom 00:45:59 2.21.1 Britain and France 00:50:28 2.21.2 Britain and Germany 00:50:44 2.22 United States 00:53:11 3 The SIGINT industry 00:54:51 3.1 Boeing 00:55:35 3.2 EADS Consortium 00:56:22 3.3 Elbit Systems 00:56:59 3.4 General Dynamics 00:57:32 3.5 GTE 00:57:53 3.6 HARVESTER 00:58:27 3.7 Israel Aerospace Industries 01:00:28 3.8 Narus 01:02:48 3.9 Northrop Grumman 01:03:19 3.10 Racal 01:03:35 3.11 Raytheon 01:04:02 3.12 Swedish-South African-EADS 01:04:40 3.13 Thales Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.74472816635774 Voice name: en-US-Wavenet-E "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= For the unifying conceptual and technical factors in this intelligence discipline, see Signals intelligence. For specific collection platforms, see SIGINT Operational Platforms by Nation for current collection systems, and for context, see SIGINT in Modern History. For a complete hierarchical list of related articles, see the intelligence cycle management hierarchy.
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CIA | Wikipedia audio article
 
02:01:15
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Central_Intelligence_Agency 00:02:30 1 Purpose 00:03:26 2 Organizational structure 00:03:59 2.1 Executive Office 00:05:55 2.2 Directorate of Analysis 00:06:54 2.3 Directorate of Operations 00:08:06 2.4 Directorate of Science and Technology 00:09:25 2.5 Directorate of Support 00:09:53 3 Training 00:11:42 4 Budget 00:15:02 5 Employees 00:15:11 5.1 Polygraphing 00:15:34 6 Relationship with other intelligence agencies 00:16:15 6.1 U.S. agencies 00:16:55 6.2 Foreign intelligence services 00:19:23 7 History 00:20:00 7.1 Immediate predecessors 00:21:38 7.2 National Security Act 00:22:53 7.3 Intelligence vs. action 00:27:28 7.4 Korean War 00:30:07 7.5 1953 Iranian coup d'état 00:33:16 7.6 1954 Guatemalan coup d'état 00:36:01 7.7 Syria 00:37:25 7.8 Indonesia 00:41:21 7.9 Democratic republic of the Congo 00:42:03 7.10 Gary Powers U-2 shootdown 00:43:42 7.11 Dominican Republic 00:44:45 7.12 Bay of Pigs 00:48:27 7.13 Early Cold War, 1953–1966 00:49:15 7.14 Brazil 00:50:12 7.15 Indochina, Tibet and the Vietnam War (1954–1975) 00:51:35 7.15.1 Johnson 00:53:26 7.16 Nixon 00:59:43 7.17 Congressional Investigations 01:01:55 7.18 Chad 01:02:24 7.19 Afghanistan 01:03:00 7.20 Iran/Contra 01:04:26 7.20.1 Lebanon 01:07:03 7.21 Pakistan 01:07:47 7.22 India-Pakistan Geopolitical Tensions 01:08:45 7.23 Poland 1980–1989 01:11:58 7.24 Operation Desert Storm 01:13:39 7.25 Fall of the USSR 01:15:12 7.26 President Clinton 01:19:58 7.26.1 Aldrich Ames 01:21:27 7.27 Osama bin Laden 01:24:25 7.27.1 Al-Qaeda and the "Global War on Terrorism" 01:33:32 7.27.2 Use of vaccination program in hunt for Osama bin Laden 01:34:24 7.28 Failures in intelligence analysis 01:35:45 7.29 Abuses of CIA authority, 1970s–1990s 01:39:06 7.30 Iraq War 01:42:49 7.31 2004, DNI takes over CIA top-level functions 01:45:06 7.32 Operation Neptune Spear 01:46:20 7.33 Syrian Civil War 01:48:32 7.34 Reorganization 01:51:39 7.35 Drones 01:52:09 8 Open source intelligence 01:54:06 9 Outsourcing and privatization 01:59:09 10 Controversies 01:59:27 11 In fiction 02:01:00 12 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.7074631592137859 Voice name: en-AU-Wavenet-B "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the federal government of the United States, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT). As one of the principal members of the United States Intelligence Community (IC), the CIA reports to the Director of National Intelligence and is primarily focused on providing intelligence for the President and Cabinet of the United States. Unlike the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), which is a domestic security service, the CIA has no law enforcement function and is mainly focused on overseas intelligence gathering, with only limited domestic intelligence collection. Though it is not the only agency of the Federal government of the United States specializing in HUMINT, the CIA serves as the national manager for coordination of HUMINT activities across the U.S. intelligence community. Moreover, the CIA is the only agency authorized by law to carry out and oversee covert action at the behest of the President. It exerts foreign political influence through its tactical divisions, such as the Special Activities Division.Before the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004, the CIA Director concurrently served as the head of the Intelligence Community; today, the CIA is organized under the Director of National Intelligence (DNI). Despite transferring some of its powers to the DNI, the CIA has grown in size as a result of the September 11 attacks. In 2013, The Washington Post reported that in the fiscal year 2010, the CIA had the largest budget of all IC agencies, ex ...
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Parallel computer hardware | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parallel_computing 00:03:03 1 Background 00:05:09 1.1 Amdahl's law and Gustafson's law 00:07:23 1.2 Dependencies 00:09:55 1.3 Race conditions, mutual exclusion, synchronization, and parallel slowdown 00:13:31 1.4 Fine-grained, coarse-grained, and embarrassing parallelism 00:17:25 1.5 Consistency models 00:18:11 1.6 Flynn's taxonomy 00:20:34 2 Types of parallelism 00:22:20 2.1 Bit-level parallelism 00:22:30 2.2 Instruction-level parallelism 00:24:14 2.3 Task parallelism 00:25:11 3 Hardware 00:26:04 3.1 Memory and communication 00:26:13 3.2 Classes of parallel computers 00:29:26 3.2.1 Multi-core computing 00:30:00 3.2.2 Symmetric multiprocessing 00:31:37 3.2.3 Distributed computing 00:32:25 3.2.3.1 Cluster computing 00:33:17 3.2.3.2 Massively parallel computing 00:35:05 3.2.3.3 Grid computing 00:36:10 3.2.4 Specialized parallel computers 00:37:21 3.2.4.1 Reconfigurable computing with field-programmable gate arrays 00:37:46 3.2.4.2 General-purpose computing on graphics processing units (GPGPU) 00:39:20 3.2.4.3 Application-specific integrated circuits 00:40:59 3.2.4.4 Vector processors 00:42:31 4 Software 00:42:57 4.1 Parallel programming languages 00:43:43 4.2 Automatic parallelization 00:43:52 4.3 Application checkpointing 00:46:16 5 Algorithmic methods 00:47:14 6 Fault tolerance 00:48:14 7 History 00:49:44 8 Biological brain as massively parallel computer 00:50:36 9 See also 00:53:37 10 References 00:55:10 11 Further reading Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.8323139632323908 Voice name: en-AU-Wavenet-A "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Parallel computing is a type of computation in which many calculations or the execution of processes are carried out simultaneously. Large problems can often be divided into smaller ones, which can then be solved at the same time. There are several different forms of parallel computing: bit-level, instruction-level, data, and task parallelism. Parallelism has long been employed in high-performance computing, but it's gaining broader interest due to the physical constraints preventing frequency scaling. As power consumption (and consequently heat generation) by computers has become a concern in recent years, parallel computing has become the dominant paradigm in computer architecture, mainly in the form of multi-core processors.Parallel computing is closely related to concurrent computing—they are frequently used together, and often conflated, though the two are distinct: it is possible to have parallelism without concurrency (such as bit-level parallelism), and concurrency without parallelism (such as multitasking by time-sharing on a single-core CPU). In parallel computing, a computational task is typically broken down into several, often many, very similar subtasks that can be processed independently and whose results are combined afterwards, upon completion. In contrast, in concurrent computing, the various processes often do not address related tasks; when they do, as is typical in distributed computing, the separate tasks may have a varied nature and often require some inter-process communication during execution. Parallel computers can be roughly classified according to the level at which the hardware supports parallelism, with multi-core and multi-processor computers having multiple processing elements within a single machine, while clusters, MPPs, and grids use multiple computers to work on the same task. Specialized parallel computer architectures are sometimes used alongside traditional processors, for accelerating specific tasks. In some cases parallelism is transparent to the programmer, such as in bit-level or instruction-level parallelism, but explicitly parallel algorithms, particularly those that use concurrency, are more difficult to write than sequential ones, because concurrency introduces several new classes of potential software bugs, of which r ...
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Parallel computation | Wikipedia audio article
 
47:59
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parallel_computing 00:02:34 1 Background 00:04:21 1.1 Amdahl's law and Gustafson's law 00:06:13 1.2 Dependencies 00:08:20 1.3 Race conditions, mutual exclusion, synchronization, and parallel slowdown 00:11:28 1.4 Fine-grained, coarse-grained, and embarrassing parallelism 00:14:46 1.5 Consistency models 00:15:26 1.6 Flynn's taxonomy 00:17:27 2 Types of parallelism 00:18:58 2.1 Bit-level parallelism 00:19:08 2.2 Instruction-level parallelism 00:20:37 2.3 Task parallelism 00:21:25 3 Hardware 00:22:12 3.1 Memory and communication 00:22:21 3.2 Classes of parallel computers 00:25:05 3.2.1 Multi-core computing 00:25:35 3.2.2 Symmetric multiprocessing 00:26:58 3.2.3 Distributed computing 00:27:40 3.2.3.1 Cluster computing 00:28:25 3.2.3.2 Massively parallel computing 00:29:57 3.2.3.3 Grid computing 00:30:52 3.2.4 Specialized parallel computers 00:31:52 3.2.4.1 Reconfigurable computing with field-programmable gate arrays 00:32:15 3.2.4.2 General-purpose computing on graphics processing units (GPGPU) 00:33:36 3.2.4.3 Application-specific integrated circuits 00:35:01 3.2.4.4 Vector processors 00:36:19 4 Software 00:36:42 4.1 Parallel programming languages 00:37:21 4.2 Automatic parallelization 00:37:31 4.3 Application checkpointing 00:39:34 5 Algorithmic methods 00:40:25 6 Fault tolerance 00:41:16 7 History 00:42:35 8 Biological brain as massively parallel computer 00:43:21 9 See also 00:45:53 10 References 00:47:14 11 Further reading Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.8708777081605918 Voice name: en-AU-Wavenet-B "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Parallel computing is a type of computation in which many calculations or the execution of processes are carried out simultaneously. Large problems can often be divided into smaller ones, which can then be solved at the same time. There are several different forms of parallel computing: bit-level, instruction-level, data, and task parallelism. Parallelism has long been employed in high-performance computing, but it's gaining broader interest due to the physical constraints preventing frequency scaling. As power consumption (and consequently heat generation) by computers has become a concern in recent years, parallel computing has become the dominant paradigm in computer architecture, mainly in the form of multi-core processors.Parallel computing is closely related to concurrent computing—they are frequently used together, and often conflated, though the two are distinct: it is possible to have parallelism without concurrency (such as bit-level parallelism), and concurrency without parallelism (such as multitasking by time-sharing on a single-core CPU). In parallel computing, a computational task is typically broken down into several, often many, very similar subtasks that can be processed independently and whose results are combined afterwards, upon completion. In contrast, in concurrent computing, the various processes often do not address related tasks; when they do, as is typical in distributed computing, the separate tasks may have a varied nature and often require some inter-process communication during execution. Parallel computers can be roughly classified according to the level at which the hardware supports parallelism, with multi-core and multi-processor computers having multiple processing elements within a single machine, while clusters, MPPs, and grids use multiple computers to work on the same task. Specialized parallel computer architectures are sometimes used alongside traditional processors, for accelerating specific tasks. In some cases parallelism is transparent to the programmer, such as in bit-level or instruction-level parallelism, but explicitly parallel algorithms, particularly those that use concurrency, are more difficult to write than sequential ones, because concurrency introduces several new classes of potential software bugs, of which r ...
Views: 2 wikipedia tts