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Electrolysis of Brine | Chemistry for All | FuseSchool
 
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Learn the basics about the electrolysis of brine within the overall reactions topic. SUBSCRIBE to the Fuse School YouTube channel for many more educational videos. Our teachers and animators come together to make fun & easy-to-understand videos in Chemistry, Biology, Physics, Maths & ICT. JOIN our platform at www.fuseschool.org This video is part of 'Chemistry for All' - a Chemistry Education project by our Charity Fuse Foundation - the organisation behind The Fuse School. These videos can be used in a flipped classroom model or as a revision aid. Find our other Chemistry videos here: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLW0gavSzhMlReKGMVfUt6YuNQsO0bqSMV Twitter: https://twitter.com/fuseSchool Access a deeper Learning Experience in the Fuse School platform and app: www.fuseschool.org Follow us: http://www.youtube.com/fuseschool Friend us: http://www.facebook.com/fuseschool This Open Educational Resource is free of charge, under a Creative Commons License: Attribution-NonCommercial CC BY-NC ( View License Deed: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ ). You are allowed to download the video for nonprofit, educational use. If you would like to modify the video, please contact us: [email protected]
Desalination as a Source of Fresh Water: Desalination 101
 
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This is the first presentation from the Critical Issues webinar "Desalination as a Source of Fresh Water". The webinar features experts from industry and academia, who will discuss current and potential future desalination technologies, desalination of seawater in coastal areas, desalination of salty groundwater in inland regions, and how these efforts are shaped by policy and community engagement. Our speakers include: Tzahi Cath, Ph.D., Ben L. Fryrear Professor, Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Colorado School of Mines Jessica H Jones, Director of Communications, Poseidon Water Katherine R. Zodrow, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Environmental Engineering, Montana Tech of the University of Montana; Non-Resident Scholar, Center for Energy Studies, James A. Baker III Institute, Rice University This webinar is co-sponsored by: National Ground Water Association, Association of Environmental & Engineering Geologists, International Association of Hydrogeologists: United States National Chapter For more information: www.americangeosciences.org/policy-critical-issues/webinars
Green Power, Global company and Manufacturer of DC power supply, Rectifier, Active harmonic filter,
 
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Green Power is a group company, registered in UK, with R&D in Beijing, and factory in Hubei province of China, with a total area of 16,000 square meters and more than 100 employees. Exported to USA, Canada etc. 40 countries. It provides high quality Rectifier, DC Power Supply, Induction Heating Power Supply, Active Harmonic Filter, STATCOM and Rail Transportation Electrical Products. Power Supplies are served for international customers mainly in below application industries: • Data Center: Provides DC power to the data center, with very low ripple and very stable output voltage, compact size. • Electrolysis, Electrowinning, Electrodeposition: non-ferrous metal electrowinning, electrodeposition (copper, zinc, lead, gold, silver, etc.), ion-exchange membrane caustic soda electrolysis, electrolytic rare earth, electrolytic copper foil, electrolytic processing, electrolytic pickling, anti-corrosion power supply. • Surface treatment: metal, plastic surface plating, anodized aluminum, hard anodized, electrolytic polishing and so on. • Plasma heating: plasma technology is the most reliable measure for all types of solid waste (municipal solid waste, industrial and hazardous solid waste, medical and electronic hazardous waste, sewage sludge, and smelting waste residue, mining tailings, etc.). Provides DC power for plasma heating. • Charging: Provides smart battery charging power for VGA and other applications. • Crystal growth: Provides stable and reliable heating power for crystal growth of single crystal silicon, polysilicon, sapphire crystal, silicon carbide, gallium arsenide, indium phosphide, etc.; • DC Arc Furnace: Provides high-power DC power for DC arc furnaces, resistance heating furnaces, and more. • Water treatment: waste water electrolysis, Sodium Hypochlorite generation, Hydrogen generation, electrochlorination by the principle of electrolyzing the brine solution(NaCl) or sea water, sewage treatment, sludge treatment, desalination. • Special applications: nuclear power test, aerospace test, military industry, oil exploration and other special applications. • Power Grid: Used for harmonic control, reactive power management, and voltage regulation to improve power quality. Website: www.gprectifier.com, Email: [email protected], Whatsapp: 0086 18500983665
Views: 745 Amy Wu
Mineral Solutions to Global Problems London_Lecture January 2016
 
01:02:31
The world faces tremendous challenges to resolve the problems associated with climate change and food supply. In both of these, minerals have a vital role to play. To achieve ambitious carbon sequestration targets, of several gigatonnes per year, we have to consider reactions that may take place on a global scale, and one way to do this is to understand and exploit those that take place in soils, recognising the role of plants as a carbon sink both above and below ground that links the soil and the atmosphere. To provide the food required by a population that will increase from 7 to 9 billion by 2050, we need to exploit the natural processes by which soil minerals provide essential plant nutrients as an appropriate companion to conventional fertiliser use. In these and other areas, minerals have a vital role to play in sustaining the human race. Speaker David Manning (GSL President & University of Newcastle) I’ve been a geologist all my life, following an interest that started at a very early age. I learnt much from field work in the Peak District when I was still at school, and then went on to Durham University to read Geology in the days when Sir Malcolm Brown was the Head of Department, before he went on to lead the British Geological Survey. That shows my age. After a wonderful time in Durham (mapping on Rum), I moved to Manchester for my PhD (another wonderful time) which was in experimental petrology – preparing the phase diagram for the system Qz-Ab-Or with added fluorine, or (in other words) establishing how fluorine affects the crystallization of granitic melts. To keep my feet on the ground I did field work in the china clay areas of Cornwall (where F-rich granites occur), and that introduced me to commercial clay geology. I’ve kept that up throughout my career. Postdoctoral fellowships followed – in Manchester (NERC) and then in France (CRPG, Nancy), with experimental work on metal partitioning (tin, tungsten) between granite melt and vapour, and field work in Thailand and Cornwall. Then a few months out of work (but not idle) while waiting to start a New Blood lectureship at Newcastle, and the rest is history as they say. That post involved research on how petroleum source rocks can also be metal ore sources, again experimentally-focused.The Earth Science Review enabled me to move in 1988 to Manchester, with research focusing on clay diagenesis in petroleum systems. Frustrated by an inability to visit a real drilling rig to take oilfield water samples I went to a local landfill and found what I was looking for there – so I worked on landfill clay reactions. Then, in 2000, my evident trajectory to the surface culminated in taking the Chair in Soil Science at Newcastle University, where I work on mineral reactions in soils, reactions associated with carbon capture and nutrient availability for plant growth. Paradoxically, that has taken me into the world of syenites, and their potential as fertilisers. I’m also closely involved with deep geothermal drilling, so mud is still very much part of my daily life.
Views: 537 GeologicalSociety
Finding New Synergies between Water and Energy (Webinar)
 
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This webinar is intended to spark a dialogue on ways to integrate existing proven technologies into sustainable systems that can provide access to fresh water, generate green electricity and manage renewable energy intermittency. In it, MIT presents its concept of an integrated pumped hydro reverse osmosis system. And, Oceanus Power & Water LLC shares its experience with building an integrated system in Mexico.
Critical Issues Webinar: Making Produced Water More Productive
 
01:00:36
Geoscience is essential to our understanding and management of produced water, an inevitable byproduct of oil and gas development. This webinar will provide a scientific and regulatory background of produced water, how it is commonly disposed, what opportunities exist for the re-use of produced water, and what the environmental and regulatory challenges for re-using produced waters are. Our speakers include: Kyle E. Murray, Ph.D., Oklahoma Geological Survey & University of Oklahoma Jeri Sullivan Graham, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Chemical Diagnostics and Engineering Group Holly Pearen, Environmental Defense Fund This webinar is cosponsored by the Association of American State Geologists and the American Association of Petroleum Geologists For more information: www.americangeosciences.org/policy-critical-iss­ues/webinars
WaterTalk: Jeanne VanBriesen
 
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As part of the Water Institute's WaterTalks lecture series Jeanne M. VanBriesen, Duquesne Light Company Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Engineering and Public Policy at Carnegie Mellon University and the Director of the Center for Water Quality in Urban Environmental Systems at Carnegie Mellon University will present "Effects of wastewater from energy extraction and utilization on drinking water sources and risk."
Brine | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Brine 00:01:05 1 In nature 00:02:45 2 Uses 00:02:53 2.1 Culinary 00:03:23 2.2 Chlorine production 00:04:56 2.3 Refrigerating fluid 00:06:24 2.4 Water softening and purification 00:07:35 2.5 De-icing 00:07:50 3 Wastewater 00:09:39 4 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Brine is a high-concentration solution of salt (usually sodium chloride) in water. In different contexts, brine may refer to salt solutions ranging from about 3.5% (a typical concentration of seawater, on the lower end of solutions used for brining foods) up to about 26% (a typical saturated solution, depending on temperature). Lower levels of concentration are called by different names: fresh water, brackish water, and saline water. Brine naturally occurs on Earth's surface (salt lakes), crust, and within brine pools on ocean bottom. High-concentration brine lakes typically emerge due to evaporation of ground saline water on high ambient temperatures. Brine is used for food processing and cooking (pickling and brining), for de-icing of roads and other structures, and in a number of technological processes. It is also a by-product of many industrial processes, such as desalination, and may pose an environmental risk due to its corrosive and toxic effects, so it requires wastewater treatment for proper disposal.
Views: 4 wikipedia tts
Natural gas
 
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Natural gas is a fossil fuel formed when layers of buried plants, gases, and animals are exposed to intense heat and pressure over thousands of years. The energy that the plants originally obtained from the sun is stored in the form of chemical bonds in natural gas. Natural gas is a nonrenewable resource because it cannot be replenished on a human time frame. Natural gas is a hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly includes varying amounts of other higher alkanes and even a lesser percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and hydrogen sulfide. Natural gas is an energy source often used for heating, cooking, and electricity generation. It is also used as fuel for vehicles and as a chemical feedstock in the manufacture of plastics and other commercially important organic chemicals. Natural gas is found in deep underground rock formations or associated with other hydrocarbon reservoirs in coal beds and as methane clathrates. Petroleum is another resource and fossil fuel found in close proximity to, and with natural gas. Most natural gas was created over time by two mechanisms: biogenic and thermogenic. Biogenic gas is created by methanogenic organisms in marshes, bogs, landfills, and shallow sediments. Deeper in the earth, at greater temperature and pressure, thermogenic gas is created from buried organic material. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 336 Audiopedia
Industrial wastewater treatment | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Industrial_wastewater_treatment 00:00:33 1 Sources of industrial wastewater 00:00:44 1.1 Battery manufacturing 00:01:14 1.2 Organic chemicals manufacturing 00:02:12 1.3 Electric power plants 00:03:59 1.4 Food industry 00:06:09 1.5 Iron and steel industry 00:08:05 1.6 Mines and quarries 00:10:16 1.7 Nuclear industry 00:10:33 1.8 Petroleum refining and petrochemicals 00:10:57 1.9 Pulp and paper industry 00:12:03 1.10 Textile Dyeing 00:12:43 1.11 Industrial oil contamination 00:13:21 1.12 Water treatment 00:14:15 1.13 Wood preserving 00:14:31 1.14 Wool processing 00:14:57 2 Treatment of industrial wastewater 00:15:17 2.1 Brine treatment 00:17:48 2.1.1 Brine management 00:18:25 2.2 Solids removal 00:19:41 2.3 Oils and grease removal 00:25:09 2.4 Removal of biodegradable organics 00:25:51 2.4.1 Activated sludge process 00:26:47 2.4.2 Trickling filter process 00:28:34 2.5 Removal of other organics 00:29:22 2.6 Removal of acids and alkalis 00:30:38 2.7 Removal of toxic materials 00:31:29 2.7.1 Smart capsules 00:32:20 3 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.9305234419778414 Voice name: en-US-Wavenet-B "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Industrial wastewater treatment describes the processes used for treating wastewater that is produced by industries as an undesirable by-product. After treatment, the treated industrial wastewater (or effluent) may be reused or released to a sanitary sewer or to a surface water in the environment. Most industries produce some wastewater. Recent trends have been to minimize such production or to recycle treated wastewater within the production process.
Views: 7 wikipedia tts
Sea | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Sea Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= The sea, the world ocean or simply the ocean is the connected body of salty water that covers over 70 percent of the Earth's surface. It moderates the Earth's climate and has important roles in the water cycle, carbon cycle, and nitrogen cycle. It has been travelled and explored since ancient times, while the scientific study of the sea—oceanography—dates broadly from the voyages of Captain James Cook to explore the Pacific Ocean between 1768 and 1779. The word "sea" is also used to denote smaller, partly landlocked sections of the ocean. The most abundant solid dissolved in sea water is sodium chloride. The water also contains salts of magnesium, calcium, and potassium, amongst many other elements, some in minute concentrations. Salinity varies widely, being lower near the surface and the mouths of large rivers and higher in the depths of the ocean; however the relative proportions of dissolved salts varies little across the oceans. Winds blowing over the surface of the sea produce waves, which break when they enter shallow water. Winds also create surface currents through friction, setting up slow but stable circulations of water throughout the oceans. The directions of the circulation are governed by factors including the shapes of the continents and the rotation of the earth (the Coriolis effect). Deep-sea currents, known as the global conveyor belt, carry cold water from near the poles to every ocean. Tides, the generally twice-daily rise and fall of sea levels, are caused by the rotation of the Earth and the gravitational effects of the orbiting Moon, and to a lesser extent of the Sun. Tides may have a very high range in bays or estuaries. Submarine earthquakes arising from tectonic plate movements under the oceans can lead to destructive tsunamis, as can volcanoes, huge landslides or the impact of large meteorites. A wide variety of organisms, including bacteria, protists, algae, plants, fungi and animals, live in the sea, which offers a wide range of marine habitats and ecosystems, ranging vertically from the sunlit surface waters and the shoreline to the enormous depths and pressures of the cold, dark abyssal zone, and in latitude from the cold waters under the Arctic ice to the colourful diversity of coral reefs in tropical regions. Many of the major groups of organisms evolved in the sea and life may have started there. The sea provides substantial supplies of food for humans, mainly fish, but also shellfish, mammals and seaweed, whether caught by fishermen or farmed underwater. Other human uses of the sea include trade, travel, mineral extraction, power generation, warfare, and leisure activities such as swimming, sailing and scuba diving. Many of these activities create marine pollution. The sea is important in human culture, with major appearances in literature at least since Homer's Odyssey, in marine art, in cinema, in theatre and in classical music. Symbolically, the sea appears as monsters such as Scylla in mythology and represents the unconscious mind in dream interpretation.
Views: 50 wikipedia tts
Peak water | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Peak water 00:01:55 1 Comparison with peak oil 00:03:00 2 Water supply 00:04:21 3 Water demand 00:04:52 4 Freshwater withdrawal by country 00:05:15 4.1 India 00:06:32 4.2 China 00:08:24 4.3 United States 00:10:59 5 Per capita withdrawal of water 00:11:15 5.1 Turkmenistan 00:11:48 5.2 Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan 00:12:23 6 Water shortfall by country 00:12:43 6.1 Saudi Arabia 00:13:48 6.2 Libya 00:14:14 6.3 Yemen 00:15:32 6.4 United Arab Emirates 00:16:00 7 Consequences 00:16:09 7.1 Famine 00:17:06 7.2 Health problems 00:18:21 7.3 Human conflicts over water 00:19:06 8 Solutions 00:19:27 8.1 Water conservation 00:20:42 8.2 Water management 00:23:48 8.3 Climate change 00:25:18 8.4 Backstop water sources 00:28:27 9 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Peak water is a concept that underlines the growing constraints on the availability, quality, and use of freshwater resources. Peak water is defined in a 2010 peer-reviewed article in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences by Peter Gleick and Meena Palaniappan. They distinguish between peak renewable, peak non-renewable, and peak ecological water in order to demonstrate the fact that although there is a vast amount of water on the planet, sustainably managed water is becoming scarce.Lester R. Brown, president of the Earth Policy Institute, wrote in 2013 that although there was extensive literature on peak oil, it was peak water that is "the real threat to our future". An assessment was published in August 2011 in the Stockholm International Water Institute's journal. Much of the world's water in underground aquifers and in lakes can be depleted and thus resembles a finite resource. The phrase peak water sparks debates similar to those about peak oil. In 2010, New York Times chose "peak water" as one of its 33 "Words of the Year".There are concerns about impending peak water in several areas around the world: Peak renewable water, where entire renewable flows are being consumed for human use Peak non-renewable water, where groundwater aquifers are being overpumped (or contaminated) faster than nature recharges them (this example is most like the peak oil debate) Peak ecological water, where ecological and environmental constraints are overwhelming the economic benefits provided by water useIf present trends continue, 1.8 billion people will be living with absolute water scarcity by 2025, and two-thirds of the world could be subject to water stress. Ultimately, peak water is not about running out of freshwater, but about reaching physical, economic, and environmental limits on meeting human demands for water and the subsequent decline of water availability and use.
Views: 4 wikipedia tts
Sea | Wikipedia audio article
 
01:24:24
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Sea Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ In case you don't find one that you were looking for, put a comment. This video uses Google TTS en-US-Standard-D voice. SUMMARY ======= The sea, the world ocean or simply the ocean is the connected body of salty water that covers over 70 percent of the Earth's surface. It moderates the Earth's climate and has important roles in the water cycle, carbon cycle, and nitrogen cycle. It has been travelled and explored since ancient times, while the scientific study of the sea—oceanography—dates broadly from the voyages of Captain James Cook to explore the Pacific Ocean between 1768 and 1779. The word "sea" is also used to denote smaller, partly landlocked sections of the ocean. The most abundant solid dissolved in sea water is sodium chloride. The water also contains salts of magnesium, calcium, and potassium, amongst many other elements, some in minute concentrations. Salinity varies widely, being lower near the surface and the mouths of large rivers and higher in the depths of the ocean; however the relative proportions of dissolved salts varies little across the oceans. Winds blowing over the surface of the sea produce waves, which break when they enter shallow water. Winds also create surface currents through friction, setting up slow but stable circulations of water throughout the oceans. The directions of the circulation are governed by factors including the shapes of the continents and the rotation of the earth (the Coriolis effect). Deep-sea currents, known as the global conveyor belt, carry cold water from near the poles to every ocean. Tides, the generally twice-daily rise and fall of sea levels, are caused by the rotation of the Earth and the gravitational effects of the orbiting Moon, and to a lesser extent of the Sun. Tides may have a very high range in bays or estuaries. Submarine earthquakes arising from tectonic plate movements under the oceans can lead to destructive tsunamis, as can volcanoes, huge landslides or the impact of large meteorites. A wide variety of organisms, including bacteria, protists, algae, plants, fungi and animals, live in the sea, which offers a wide range of marine habitats and ecosystems, ranging vertically from the sunlit surface waters and the shoreline to the enormous depths and pressures of the cold, dark abyssal zone, and in latitude from the cold waters under the Arctic ice to the colourful diversity of coral reefs in tropical regions. Many of the major groups of organisms evolved in the sea and life may have started there. The sea provides substantial supplies of food for humans, mainly fish, but also shellfish, mammals and seaweed, whether caught by fishermen or farmed underwater. Other human uses of the sea include trade, travel, mineral extraction, power generation, warfare, and leisure activities such as swimming, sailing and scuba diving. Many of these activities create marine pollution. The sea is important in human culture, with major appearances in literature at least since Homer's Odyssey, in marine art, in cinema, in theatre and in classical music. Symbolically, the sea appears as monsters such as Scylla in mythology and represents the unconscious mind in dream interpretation.
Views: 103 wikipedia tts
Sea | Wikipedia audio article
 
01:24:24
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Sea Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ In case you don't find one that you were looking for, put a comment. This video uses Google TTS en-US-Standard-D voice. SUMMARY ======= The sea, the world ocean or simply the ocean is the connected body of salty water that covers over 70 percent of the Earth's surface. It moderates the Earth's climate and has important roles in the water cycle, carbon cycle, and nitrogen cycle. It has been travelled and explored since ancient times, while the scientific study of the sea—oceanography—dates broadly from the voyages of Captain James Cook to explore the Pacific Ocean between 1768 and 1779. The word "sea" is also used to denote smaller, partly landlocked sections of the ocean. The most abundant solid dissolved in sea water is sodium chloride. The water also contains salts of magnesium, calcium, and potassium, amongst many other elements, some in minute concentrations. Salinity varies widely, being lower near the surface and the mouths of large rivers and higher in the depths of the ocean; however the relative proportions of dissolved salts varies little across the oceans. Winds blowing over the surface of the sea produce waves, which break when they enter shallow water. Winds also create surface currents through friction, setting up slow but stable circulations of water throughout the oceans. The directions of the circulation are governed by factors including the shapes of the continents and the rotation of the earth (the Coriolis effect). Deep-sea currents, known as the global conveyor belt, carry cold water from near the poles to every ocean. Tides, the generally twice-daily rise and fall of sea levels, are caused by the rotation of the Earth and the gravitational effects of the orbiting Moon, and to a lesser extent of the Sun. Tides may have a very high range in bays or estuaries. Submarine earthquakes arising from tectonic plate movements under the oceans can lead to destructive tsunamis, as can volcanoes, huge landslides or the impact of large meteorites. A wide variety of organisms, including bacteria, protists, algae, plants, fungi and animals, live in the sea, which offers a wide range of marine habitats and ecosystems, ranging vertically from the sunlit surface waters and the shoreline to the enormous depths and pressures of the cold, dark abyssal zone, and in latitude from the cold waters under the Arctic ice to the colourful diversity of coral reefs in tropical regions. Many of the major groups of organisms evolved in the sea and life may have started there. The sea provides substantial supplies of food for humans, mainly fish, but also shellfish, mammals and seaweed, whether caught by fishermen or farmed underwater. Other human uses of the sea include trade, travel, mineral extraction, power generation, warfare, and leisure activities such as swimming, sailing and scuba diving. Many of these activities create marine pollution. The sea is important in human culture, with major appearances in literature at least since Homer's Odyssey, in marine art, in cinema, in theatre and in classical music. Symbolically, the sea appears as monsters such as Scylla in mythology and represents the unconscious mind in dream interpretation.
Views: 61 wikipedia tts
Natural gas | Wikipedia audio article
 
56:21
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Natural gas Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Natural gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or helium. It is formed when layers of decomposing plant and animal matter are exposed to intense heat and pressure under the surface of the Earth over millions of years. The energy that the plants originally obtained from the sun is stored in the form of chemical bonds in the gas.Natural gas is a fossil fuel used as a source of energy for heating, cooking, and electricity generation. It is also used as a fuel for vehicles and as a chemical feedstock in the manufacture of plastics and other commercially important organic chemicals. Fossil fuel based natural gas is a non-renewable resource.Natural gas is found in deep underground rock formations or associated with other hydrocarbon reservoirs in coal beds and as methane clathrates. Petroleum is another resource and fossil fuel found in close proximity to and with natural gas. Most natural gas were created over time by two mechanisms: biogenic and thermogenic. Biogenic gas is created by methanogenic organisms in marshes, bogs, landfills, and shallow sediments. Deeper in the earth, at greater temperature and pressure, thermogenic gas is created from buried organic material.In petroleum production gas is often burnt as flare gas. The World Bank estimates that over 150 cubic kilometers of natural gas are flared or vented annually. Before natural gas can be used as a fuel, most, but not all, must be processed to remove impurities, including water, to meet the specifications of marketable natural gas. The by-products of this processing include: ethane, propane, butanes, pentanes, and higher molecular weight hydrocarbons, hydrogen sulfide (which may be converted into pure sulfur), carbon dioxide, water vapor, and sometimes helium and nitrogen. Natural gas is often informally referred to simply as "gas", especially when compared to other energy sources such as oil or coal. However, it is not to be confused with gasoline, especially in North America, where the term gasoline is often shortened in colloquial usage to gas.
Views: 56 wikipedia tts
Glossary of environmental science | Wikipedia audio article
 
02:10:29
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glossary_of_environmental_science 00:00:22 0-9 00:01:06 A 00:07:25 B 00:15:05 C 00:27:58 D 00:34:51 E 00:50:04 F 00:55:47 G 01:05:16 H 01:08:53 I 01:13:33 J 01:13:55 1, 000,000 J. On large accounts it may be measured in gigajoules (GJ), where 1 GJ 01:14:16 K 01:15:08 L 01:20:11 M 01:23:29 N 01:26:37 O 01:28:43 P 01:32:52 current x voltage (P 01:35:40 R 01:42:42 S 01:55:29 T 01:59:09 U 02:00:52 V 02:02:06 W 02:09:40 Z 02:10:04 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.8774675930112518 Voice name: en-GB-Wavenet-B "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= This is a glossary of environmental science. Environmental science is the study of interactions among physical, chemical, and biological components of the environment. Environmental science provides an integrated, quantitative, and interdisciplinary approach to the study of environmental systems.
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Human overpopulation | Wikipedia audio article
 
01:24:54
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Human overpopulation Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Human overpopulation (or population overshoot) occurs when the ecological footprint of a human population in a specific geographical location exceeds the carrying capacity of the place occupied by that group. Overpopulation can further be viewed, in a long term perspective, as existing if a population cannot be maintained given the rapid depletion of non-renewable resources or given the degradation of the capacity of the environment to give support to the population. Changes in lifestyle could reverse overpopulated status without a large population reduction.The term human overpopulation refers to the relationship between the entire human population and its environment: the Earth, or to smaller geographical areas such as countries. Overpopulation can result from an increase in births, a decline in mortality rates, an increase in immigration, or an unsustainable biome and depletion of resources. It is possible for very sparsely populated areas to be overpopulated if the area has a meagre or non-existent capability to sustain life (e.g. a desert). Advocates of population moderation cite issues like quality of life, carrying capacity, and risk of starvation as a basis to argue for population decline. Scientists suggest that the human impact on the environment as a result of overpopulation, profligate consumption and proliferation of technology has pushed the planet into a new geological epoch known as the Anthropocene.
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