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Mod-01 Lec-10 Introduction to Mineral Beneficiation
 
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Materials and Energy Balance in Metallurgical Processes by Prof. S. C. Koria, Department of Materials Science & Engineering, IIT Kanpur For more details on NPTEL visit http://nptel.iitm.ac.in
Views: 12610 nptelhrd
How to extract aluminium by electrolysis | Chemistry for All | FuseSchool
 
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Aluminium is the most abundant metal on Earth. However, it is expensive because a lot of electricity is used to extract it. Bauxite is the aluminium ore. It is purified to yield aluminium oxide, which is a white powder. Aluminium is then extracted from aluminium oxide by electrolysis. The aluminium oxide must be made molten so that the ions can pass through it during electrolysis. Aluminium oxide has a very high melting point - over 2000 degrees celsius. So instead of trying to melt it, the aluminium oxide is dissolved in molten cryolite. Cryolite is an aluminium compound with a much lower melting point than aluminium oxide, and so using this reduces some of the costs in extracting aluminium. The steel case is coated with graphite, providing the negative cathode. The positive anodes are immersed in the molten cryolite, and are also made of graphite. When the battery is turned on and electricity flows, the aluminium forms at the negative cathode and sinks to the bottom of the tank where is is tapped off as a pure liquid metal. Oxygen forms at the positive anodes. The oxygen reacts with the carbon of the graphite, forming carbon dioxide. The positive anode therefore burns away, and needs replacing regularly. This is another reason for the extraction of aluminium being so expensive. SUBSCRIBE to the FuseSchool YouTube channel for many more educational videos. Our teachers and animators come together to make fun & easy-to-understand videos in Chemistry, Biology, Physics, Maths & ICT. VISIT us at www.fuseschool.org, where all of our videos are carefully organised into topics and specific orders, and to see what else we have on offer. Comment, like and share with other learners. You can both ask and answer questions, and teachers will get back to you. These videos can be used in a flipped classroom model or as a revision aid. Find all of our Chemistry videos here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cRnpKjHpFyg&list=PLW0gavSzhMlReKGMVfUt6YuNQsO0bqSMV Find all of our Biology videos here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tjkHzEVcyrE&list=PLW0gavSzhMlQYSpKryVcEr3ERup5SxHl0 Find all of our Maths videos here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hJq_cdz_L00&list=PLW0gavSzhMlTyWKCgW1616v3fIywogoZQ Twitter: https://twitter.com/fuseSchool Access a deeper Learning Experience in the FuseSchool platform and app: www.fuseschool.org Follow us: http://www.youtube.com/fuseschool Friend us: http://www.facebook.com/fuseschool This Open Educational Resource is free of charge, under a Creative Commons License: Attribution-NonCommercial CC BY-NC ( View License Deed: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ ). You are allowed to download the video for nonprofit, educational use. If you would like to modify the video, please contact us: [email protected]
Webinar: Mining Big Economic Data
 
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This October 2014 webinar explored how the Economist Intelligence Unit supports the complex global data needs of major academic research projects in the field of international trade and economics. Presenters included Robin Bew, Managing Director of the Economist Intelligence Unit; and Chris Pearce, who directs the EIU's global data operations.
Views: 271 CRLdotEDU
Calcined bauxite 3-5mm 90%
 
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SEPPE Calcined Bauxite 3-5mm 90%Al203 used in refractory materials.
Views: 69 Seppe Tech
Evaporation & Underdrainage in Dewatering Oil Sands Tailings
 
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Evaluation of Evaporation & Underdrainage in Dewatering Oil Sands Tailings in Northern Alberta: Presentation by Mike O'Kane (President of O'Kane Consultants Inc.) at the Tailings & Mine Waste 2013 Conference in Banff, Alberta, Canada on November 5, 2013. Recorded by Alberta Land-Use Knowledge Network and posted with permission.
Views: 494 OKaneConsultants
Mod-01 Lec-15 Lecture-15-Extraction Aluminium
 
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Non-ferrous Extractive Metallurgy by Prof.H.S. Ray,Department of Metallurgical & Materials Engineering,IIT Kharagpur.For more details on NPTEL visit http://nptel.iitm.ac.in
Views: 5126 nptelhrd
Site Mixed Slurry or Site Mixed Emulsion  in Open Cast Blasting
 
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In this video describe site mixed slurry or site mixed emulsion in open cast blasting. More info about (SMS/SME):-http://www.natkhatscience.ooo/2018/07/site-mixed-slurry-or-site-mixed.html?m=1 music Creative Common Attribution:- https://youtu.be/EcAX2cbsdRw
Views: 1306 Mining Video
Aluminium and Titanium
 
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Aluminium and Titanium Aluminum Titanium Titanium Dioxide These are two metals with a low density which means they are aluminum compound lightweight for their size. titanium element why does titanium cost more than iron to extract Aluminium is used for aircraft, trains, overhead power cables, saucepans and cooking foil. Titanium, when pure, is a lustrous, white metal. The metal burns in air and is the only element that burns in nitrogen. It is marvellous in fireworks. Aluminium and Titanium resist corrosion as they have a very thin layer of their oxides on the surface, which stops air and water getting to the metal. Extraction Unlike iron, aluminium and titanium cannot be extracted from their oxides by reduction with carbon because: Aluminium is more reactive than carbon, so the reaction does not work. Titanium forms titanium carbide with carbon, which makes the metal brittle. In order to isolate pure aluminium, impurities must be removed from the bauxite. This is done by the Bayer process, which involves treatment with sodium hydroxide solution, followed by purification using electrolysis. Aluminium is mined in huge scales as bauxite. This involves the action of chlorine and carbon on the titanium ore followed by fractional distillation and then reduction with magnesium. Titanium is isolated using the Kroll method. Cost Aluminium extraction is expensive because the process needs a lot of electrical energy. Titanium extraction is expensive because the process involves several stages and a lot of energy. This especially limits the uses of titanium. Summary Aluminium and Titanium both have a low density which means they are lightweight for their size. They resist corrosion. They cannot be extracted byreduction. Extraction is expensive because there are several stages involved and the processes require a lot of energy.
Views: 946 SliderBase
Mineral resource classification
 
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Mineral resource classification is the classification of mineral deposits based on their geologic certainty and economic value. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 843 Audiopedia
Aluminium oxide
 
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Aluminium oxide is a chemical compound of aluminium and oxygen with the chemical formula Al2O3. It is the most commonly occurring of several aluminium oxides, and specifically identified as aluminium(III) oxide. It is commonly called alumina, and may also be called aloxide, aloxite, or alundum depending on particular forms or applications. It commonly occurs in its crystalline polymorphic phase α-Al2O3, in which it comprises the mineral corundum, varieties of which form the precious gems ruby and sapphire. Al2O3 is significant in its use to produce aluminium metal, as an abrasive owing to its hardness, and as a refractory material owing to its high melting point. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 6274 Audiopedia
What Are The Ores Of Aluminum?
 
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Views: 176 mad Video Marketing
MBMMLLC.com: Scraping and separating copper and aluminium from radiators with a hammer mill
 
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These copper aluminium radiators are a great source of copper, but they are so hard to clean and separate by hand. With this hammer mill the pieces are liberated into small pieces that can then be separated with an air density separation table. Phone: 360-595-4445 Email: [email protected] Website: MBMMLLC.com Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/MBMMLLC
Views: 10411 mbmmllc
Mark Tibbett - Carbon accumulation & the return of microbial function in soils Pt 1
 
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Mark Tibbett's presentation is focused around one question: can we change the amount of carbon in soil through land management? Atmospheric carbon has risen 31% since 1750, and this is a concern within the context of global warming. One significant factor in that increase has been shifts in land use, such as native forest to crop, which allow a release in carbon from the soil to the atmosphere. In Western Australia, soil carbon at a depth of 40 cm can be 2 -5 times greater than what would be found at a depth of 50 cm. This finding is similar to the Southern hemisphere and in tropical areas. Are there ways to manage the land that would allow carbon to be increased in the soil? Put simply, yes. By changing the land use and evaluating the significance of surface litter. This is not only important for climate change. There are many important benefits to carbon in the soil. It is a source of energy and a reservoir of nutrients. It improves the structural stability of soils at various scales and alters soil thermal qualities. Tibbett's experience is in bauxite mining and he explains the basic process, and how it relates to soil quality. Once the plants and first two meters are stripped, the next six meters are drilled and blasted, and the following six meters are dug and loaded. Once the mining is completed, the site is prepared for restoration. Soils get layered back on and landscaping is added. "Direct return" is the goal of all mines. This means the top soil is removed in preparation for mining, and dropped onto a reclamation-ready mine site the same day. In this way the maximum integrity of the soil is maintained. Over many years surface litter in the reclaimed forest is evaluated and weighed. After 10-15 years, the litter is higher in the tropical and Mediterranean forests than native forests. This is expected partly because of stem density and partly because the entire forest was re-planted in a short period of time compared to the growth and development of a natural forest. Tibbett's presentation discusses carbon content in soil with an awareness of the affects of mining to soil quality, and an understanding to broad benefits of carbon content in soil, to soil quality and climate change. This presentation was a part of the Alberta Soil Science Workshop, from February 2014.
Views: 235 LanduseKN
How aluminium is extracted by electrolysis
 
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Properties and uses of aluminium. Properties: Conducts heat and electricity well. It has a low density for a metal. It does not corrode. Uses: Aeroplanes, window frames, foil, drinks cans, electricity cables and pans. Where does aluminium come from? Aluminium is extracted from its ore bauxite. Bauxite is mainly aluminium oxide. Formula Al2O3 Why is electrolysis used? Where is aluminium in the reactivity series? Near the top. It is quite a reactive metal. Why is electrolysis used? Why can’t it be extracted using carbon? It is more reactive than carbon and so carbon cannot remove the oxygen (reduction). Key features of the electrolysis of aluminium oxide. Aluminium oxide is molten. Oxygen is formed at the graphite anode. The anodes are gradually worn away by oxidation. Aluminium is formed at the graphite cathode. The process has a high electrical energy requirement. Electrolysis of aluminium oxide Electrolysis of Aluminium Oxide Electrode reactions. At the cathode: Al3+ + 3e-  Al Aluminium ions are reduced (gain electrons) to aluminium atoms . At the anode: 2O2- - 4e-  O2 Oxygen ions are oxidised (lose electrons) to oxygen molecules. Understanding the process. Why must the aluminium oxide be molten? Why are the anodes gradually worn away? Why is cryolite used? Why is aluminium expensive? Answers The aluminium oxide must be molten for electrolysis to take place. When molten the ions are free to move, in the solid form they are fixed. The oxygen formed at the anode reacts with the carbon anode to from carbon dioxide. Answers Cryolite lowers the melting point and so saves energy. The electrolytic process requires a lot of electrical energy. Most aluminium extraction plants are located near power stations, usually hydroelectric plants.
Views: 15009 SliderBank
Book 1- Fundamental of Human Geography - Primary Activities - 12th Class Geography - NCERT - CBSE
 
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The video is about the Primary activities from Book -1 Fundamental of Human Geography . Syllabus for Geography 12th Class A. Fundamentals of Human Geography Unit 1: Human Geography: Nature and Scope Unit 2: People Population-distribution,density and growth Population change-spatial patterns and structure; determinants of population change; Age-sex ratio; rural-urban composition; Human development - concept; selected indicators, international comparisons Unit 3: Human Activities Primary activities - concept and changing trends; gathering, pastoral, mining, subsistence agriculture, modern agriculture; people engaged in agricultural and allied activities - some examples from selected countries. Secondary activities-concept; manufacturing: types - household, small scale, large scale; agro based and mineral based industries; people engaged in secondary activities - some examples from selected countries. Tertiary activities-concept; trade, transport and tourism; services; people engaged in tertiary activities - some examples from selected countries. Quatenary activities - concept; people engaged in quatenary activities - case study from selected countries. Unit 4: Transport, Communication & Trade Land transport - roads, railways; trans-continental railways. Water transport - inland waterways; major ocean routes. Air transport - Intercontinental air routes. Oil and gas pipelines. Satellite communication and cyber space- Importance and usage for geographical information; use of GPS. International trade-Bases and changing patterns; ports as gateways of international trade, role of WTO in International trade. Ocean: National rights and international treaties. Unit 5: Human settlements Settlement types - rural and urban; morphology of cities (case study); distribution of mega cities; problems of human settlements in developing countries. Map Work Map Work on identification of features based on 1-5 units on the outline/Physical/Political map of World. B. India: People and Economy Unit 6: People Population: distribution, density and growth; composition of population - linguistic, religious; sex, rural-urban and occupational-regional variations in growth of population. Migration: international, national-causes and consequences. Human development: selected indicators and regional patterns. Population, environment and development. Unit 7: Human Settlements Rural settlements - types and distribution. Urban settlements - types, distribution and functional classification. Unit 8: Resources and Development Land resources - general land use; agricultural land use, Geographical conditions and distribution of major crops (Wheat, Rice, Tea, Coffee, Cotton, Jute, Sugarcane and Rubber), agricultural development and problems. Water resources - availability and utilization-irrigation, domestic, industrial and other uses; scarcity of water and conservation methods -rain water harvesting and watershed management. Mineral and energy resources - distribution of metallic (Iron ore, Copper, Bauxite, Manganese); non-metallic (Mica, Salt) minerals; conventional (Coal, Petroleum, Natural gas and Hydroelectricity) and non-conventional energy sources (solar, wind, biogas) and conservation. Industries - types, factors of industrial location; distribution and changing pattern of selected industries-iron and steel, cotton textiles, sugar, petrochemicals, and knowledge based industries; impact of liberalization, privatisation and globalisation on industrial location; industrial clusters. Planning in India - target group area planning (case study); idea of sustainable development (case study). Unit 9: Transport, Communication and International Trade Transport and communication-roads, railways, waterways and airways: oil and gas pipelines; Geographical information and communication networks. International trade - changing pattern of India's foreign trade; sea ports and their hinterland and airports. Unit 10: Geographical Perspective on selected issues and problems Environmental pollution; urban - waste disposal. Urbanisation, rural-urban migration; problems of slums. Land degradation. Map Work Map work on locating and labelling of features based on above units on outline map of India. C. Practical Work Unit 1: Processing of Data and Thematic Mapping Unit 2: Field study or Spatial Information Technology Unit 3: Practical Record Book and Viva Voce
Views: 1323 Goodwill Education
Manganese
 
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Manganese is a chemical element, designated by the symbol Mn. It has the atomic number 25. It is not found as a free element in nature, it is often found in combination with iron, and in many minerals. Manganese is a metal with important industrial metal alloy uses, particularly in stainless steels. Historically, manganese is named for various black minerals (such as pyrolusite) from the same region of Magnesia in Greece which gave names to similar-sounding magnesium, Mg, and magnetite, an ore of the element iron, Fe. By the mid-18th century, Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele had used pyrolusite to produce chlorine. Scheele and others were aware that pyrolusite (now known to be manganese dioxide) contained a new element, but they were not able to isolate it. Johan Gottlieb Gahn was the first to isolate an impure sample of manganese metal in 1774, by reducing the dioxide with carbon. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 4434 Audiopedia
Economy of Tamil Nadu | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Economy of Tamil Nadu Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ In case you don't find one that you were looking for, put a comment. This video uses Google TTS en-US-Standard-D voice. SUMMARY ======= Tamil Nadu has the second-largest economy in India. Over 50% of the state is urbanized, accounting for 9.6% of the urban population in the country, while only comprising 6% of India's total population. Services contributes to 45% of the economic activity in the state, followed by manufacturing at 34% and agriculture at 21%. Government is the major investor in the state, with 52% of total investments, followed by private Indian investors at 29.9% and foreign private investors at 14.9%. It has been ranked as the second most economically free state in India by the Economic Freedom Rankings for the States of India.
Views: 174 wikipedia tts
Special Concretes: High Strength Matrices and SCC
 
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Concrete Technology by Dr. B. Bhattacharjee,Department of Civil Engineering,IIT Delhi.For more details on NPTEL visit http://nptel.ac.in
Views: 3753 nptelhrd
super thin mill
 
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Ultrafine mill Overview : http://crusher.chinashibang.com/product/t130x_reinforced_ultrafine_mill.html Get Price: http://crusher.chinashibang.com/contact_us/ Ultrafine mill is mainly used in processing materials of metallurgy, building construction, chemicals and mining industry, such as feldspar, calcite, talc, barite, fluorite earth, ceramic , bauxite, phosphate rock, iron oxide, slag, clinker, chemical fertilizers, compound fertilizers, fly ash, coal, coke, lignite, gypsum, graphite, etc. Features: Adopt flexible connection between the mainframe and the classifier, avoiding too much vibrating Using Germany Flender reducer ensure that it has reliable performance. Classifier applies high-density blade and it is easy to adjust the by equipping frequency control system. Applying dust bypass collector, it won't bring environment pollution. Optimized design make powder centralized collection and packing become easy.
Views: 52 Zhao Gloria
Mod-01 Lec-18 Lecture-18-Extraction Aluminium (Contd...3)
 
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Non-ferrous Extractive Metallurgy by Prof.H.S. Ray,Department of Metallurgical & Materials Engineering,IIT Kharagpur.For more details on NPTEL visit http://nptel.iitm.ac.in
Views: 1592 nptelhrd
Ceramic engineering
 
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Ceramic engineering is the science and technology of creating objects from inorganic, non-metallic materials. This is done either by the action of heat, or at lower temperatures using precipitation reactions from high-purity chemical solutions. The term includes the purification of raw materials, the study and production of the chemical compounds concerned, their formation into components and the study of their structure, composition and properties. Ceramic materials may have a crystalline or partly crystalline structure, with long-range order on atomic scale. Glass ceramics may have an amorphous or glassy structure, with limited or short-range atomic order. They are either formed from a molten mass that solidifies on cooling, formed and matured by the action of heat, or chemically synthesized at low temperatures using, for example, hydrothermal or sol-gel synthesis. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 1325 Audiopedia
Aluminium | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Aluminium 00:01:14 1 Physical characteristics 00:01:24 1.1 Nuclei and isotopes 00:03:00 1.2 Electron shell 00:04:17 1.3 Bulk 00:06:07 2 Chemistry 00:08:03 2.1 Inorganic compounds 00:11:26 2.1.1 Rarer oxidation states 00:11:47 2.1.1.1 Aluminium(I) 00:12:54 2.1.1.2 Aluminium(II) 00:13:25 2.2 Organoaluminium compounds and related hydrides 00:15:03 3 Natural occurrence 00:15:12 3.1 In space 00:16:22 3.2 On Earth 00:18:23 4 History 00:24:47 5 Etymology 00:25:57 5.1 Spelling 00:28:40 6 Production and refinement 00:29:47 6.1 Bayer process 00:31:02 6.2 Hall–Héroult process 00:33:24 6.3 Recycling 00:34:44 7 Applications 00:34:53 7.1 Metal 00:36:56 7.2 Compounds 00:39:53 8 Biology 00:40:24 8.1 Toxicity 00:41:20 8.2 Effects 00:43:05 8.3 Exposure routes 00:44:19 8.4 Treatment 00:45:01 9 Environmental effects 00:47:27 10 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13. It is a silvery-white, soft, nonmagnetic and ductile metal in the boron group. By mass, aluminium makes up about 8% of the Earth's crust; it is the third most abundant element after oxygen and silicon and the most abundant metal in the crust, though it is less common in the mantle below. The chief ore of aluminium is bauxite. Aluminium metal is so chemically reactive that native specimens are rare and limited to extreme reducing environments. Instead, it is found combined in over 270 different minerals.Aluminium is remarkable for its low density and its ability to resist corrosion through the phenomenon of passivation. Aluminium and its alloys are vital to the aerospace industry and important in transportation and building industries, such as building facades and window frames. The oxides and sulfates are the most useful compounds of aluminium.Despite its prevalence in the environment, no known form of life uses aluminium salts metabolically, but aluminium is well tolerated by plants and animals. Because of these salts' abundance, the potential for a biological role for them is of continuing interest, and studies continue.
Views: 28 wikipedia tts
Sierra Leone | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Sierra Leone Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ In case you don't find one that you were looking for, put a comment. This video uses Google TTS en-US-Standard-D voice. SUMMARY ======= Sierra Leone (, UK also ), officially the Republic of Sierra Leone, is a country in West Africa. It is bordered by Guinea to the northeast, Liberia to the southeast and the Atlantic Ocean to the southwest. It has a tropical climate, with a diverse environment ranging from savanna to rainforests. The country has a total area of 71,740 km2 (27,699 sq mi) and a population of 7,075,641 as of the 2015 census. Sierra Leone is a constitutional republic with a directly elected president and a unicameral legislature. Sierra Leone has a dominant unitary central government. The president is the head of state and the head of government. The country's capital and largest city is Freetown. Kenema, located 185 miles from Freetown, is the country's second most populous city. Other major cities with a population above one hundred thousand are Bo, Koidu Town and Makeni. Sierra Leone is made up of five administrative regions: the Northern Province, North West Province, Eastern Province, Southern Province and the Western Area. These regions are subdivided into sixteen districts.Sierra Leone became independent from the United Kingdom on 27 April 1961, led by Sir Milton Margai, who became the country's first prime minister. In May 1962, Sierra Leone held its first general elections as an independent nation. Siaka Stevens" All People's Congress won the 1967 Sierra Leone parliamentary election over the governing Sierra Leone People's Party. Stevens ruled Sierra Leone from 1968 to 1985 in which he was intolerant of opponents and critics of his government. In 1971, Stevens abolished Sierra Leone's parliamentary government system and declared Sierra Leone a presidential republic. Sierra Leone was a one-party state from 1978 to 1985, in which Stevens' All People's Congress was the only legal political party in the country. The current constitution of Sierra Leone, which includes multi party democracy, was adopted in 1991 by the government of President Joseph Saidu Momoh, Stevens' hand-picked successor. In 1991, a rebel group known as the Revolutionary United Front led by former Sierra Leone army Corporal Foday Sankoh launched a brutal civil war in the country. In April 1992 a group of Junior military officers toppled Momoh from power and 25-year-old Captain Valentine Strasser became the head of state. In January 1996 Strasser was toppled from power by his deputy, Brigadier General Julius Maada Bio. Bio returned the country to multi-party democracy and the 1991 constitution was reestablished. Bio handed power to Ahmad Tejan Kabbah of the Sierra Leone People's Party after his victory in the 1996 Sierra Leone presidential election. In 1997, the military overthrew president Kabbah. However, in February 1998, a coalition of West African Ecowas armed forces led by Nigeria, removed the military Junta from power by force and president Kabbah was reinstated as president. In 1998, the coup leaders were executed after they were sentenced to death by a military court martial. Sierra Leone has had an uninterrupted democracy since 1998 to present. In January 2002, President Ahmad Tejan Kabbah fulfilled his campaign promise by officially ending the civil war as the rebels were defeated by military force with the help and support of Ecowas, the British government, the African Union, and the United Nations. About 16 ethnic groups inhabit Sierra Leone, each with its own language and customs. The two largest and most influential are the Temne and Mende. The Temne are predominantly found in the northwest of the country, and the Mende are predominant in the southeast. Comprising a small minority, about 2%, are the Krio people, who are descendants of freed African-American and West Indian slaves. The Krios are overwhelmingly found in the capital Freetown and its surrounding countryside. Although English is the official language, used in schools and government administration, Krio, an English-based creole, is the most widely spoken language across Sierr ...
Views: 211 wikipedia tts
Indonesian coal crusher factory
 
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Aluminum | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aluminium 00:01:20 1 Physical characteristics 00:01:30 1.1 Nuclei and isotopes 00:03:18 1.2 Electron shell 00:04:42 1.3 Bulk 00:06:40 2 Chemistry 00:08:42 2.1 Inorganic compounds 00:12:21 2.1.1 Rarer oxidation states 00:12:44 2.1.1.1 Aluminium(I) 00:13:53 2.1.1.2 Aluminium(II) 00:14:27 2.2 Organoaluminium compounds and related hydrides 00:16:11 3 Natural occurrence 00:16:21 3.1 In space 00:17:36 3.2 On Earth 00:19:46 4 History 00:26:41 5 Etymology 00:27:58 5.1 Spelling 00:30:57 6 Production and refinement 00:32:07 6.1 Bayer process 00:33:27 6.2 Hall–Héroult process 00:36:01 6.3 Recycling 00:37:26 7 Applications 00:37:35 7.1 Metal 00:39:45 7.2 Compounds 00:42:56 8 Biology 00:43:28 8.1 Toxicity 00:44:28 8.2 Effects 00:46:19 8.3 Exposure routes 00:47:38 8.4 Treatment 00:48:22 9 Environmental effects 00:50:59 10 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.9988876462594649 Voice name: en-US-Wavenet-B "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Aluminium (also spelled aluminum) is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13. It is a silvery-white, soft, nonmagnetic and ductile metal in the boron group. By mass, aluminium makes up about 8% of the Earth's crust; it is the third most abundant element after oxygen and silicon and the most abundant metal in the crust, though it is less common in the mantle below. The chief ore of aluminium is bauxite. Aluminium metal is so chemically reactive that native specimens are rare and limited to extreme reducing environments. Instead, it is found combined in over 270 different minerals.Aluminium is remarkable for its low density and its ability to resist corrosion through the phenomenon of passivation. Aluminium and its alloys are vital to the aerospace industry and important in transportation and building industries, such as building facades and window frames. The oxides and sulfates are the most useful compounds of aluminium.Despite its prevalence in the environment, no known form of life uses aluminium salts metabolically, but aluminium is well tolerated by plants and animals. Because of these salts' abundance, the potential for a biological role for them is of continuing interest, and studies continue.
Views: 0 wikipedia tts
Chhattisgarh | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Chhattisgarh 00:01:06 1 Etymology 00:02:40 2 Geography 00:05:10 2.1 Climate 00:05:55 3 Transport 00:06:04 3.1 Roads 00:07:32 3.2 Rail network 00:08:50 3.2.1 Rail network expansion 00:10:29 3.3 Air 00:12:11 4 History 00:12:19 4.1 Ancient and medieval history 00:12:57 4.2 Colonial and post-independence history 00:14:12 4.3 Separation of Chhattisgarh 00:16:19 5 Governance 00:16:40 6 Administration 00:16:54 6.1 Divisions 00:17:03 6.2 Districts 00:17:18 6.3 Major cities 00:17:27 7 Economy 00:18:04 7.1 Tea production 00:18:55 7.2 Agriculture 00:20:09 7.2.1 Agricultural products 00:21:05 7.2.2 Irrigation 00:23:34 7.3 Industrial sector 00:23:43 7.3.1 Power sector 00:25:22 7.3.2 Steel sector 00:26:05 7.3.3 Aluminium sector 00:26:23 7.3.4 Natural resources 00:26:32 7.3.4.1 Forest 00:27:04 7.3.4.2 Mineral deposits 00:27:40 7.3.4.3 Information and technologies 00:28:09 7.3.4.4 Major companies 00:28:42 7.4 Exports 00:29:26 8 Human Development Indicators 00:29:36 8.1 HDI 00:30:01 8.2 Standard of living 00:30:50 8.3 Education Index 00:32:01 8.4 Health Index 00:32:55 8.5 Net state domestic product 00:33:41 8.6 Urbanisation 00:34:22 8.7 Sex ratio 00:34:54 8.8 Fertility rate 00:35:18 8.9 SC and ST population 00:36:38 8.10 Poverty 00:37:41 8.11 Access to drinking water 00:38:32 8.12 Sanitation 00:39:20 8.13 Teledensity 00:40:05 8.14 Road density 00:40:46 9 Demographics 00:41:38 9.1 Religion 00:42:09 9.1.1 Witchcraft 00:43:11 9.1.2 Religious persecution 00:44:01 9.2 Language 00:44:50 9.3 Status of women 00:46:37 10 Culture 00:48:17 10.1 Literature 00:49:03 10.2 Crafts 00:49:36 10.3 Dance 00:49:59 10.3.1 Panthi 00:50:42 10.3.2 Pandwani 00:51:23 10.3.3 Raut Nacha 00:52:05 10.3.4 Soowa Nacha 00:52:35 10.3.5 Karma 00:53:01 11 Festivals of Chhattisgarh 00:53:30 11.1 Theatre 00:53:51 11.2 Film industry 00:54:08 11.3 Traditional food 00:54:24 12 Tourism 00:54:59 13 Education 00:55:21 13.1 Absolute literates and literacy rate 00:55:35 14 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Chhattisgarh (Chhattīsgaṛh, translation: Thirty-Six Forts) is one of the 29 states of India, located in the centre-east of the country. It is the tenth-largest state in India, with an area of 135,191 km2 (52,198 sq mi). With a population of 25.5 million, Chhattisgarh is the 17th-most populated state in the country. A resource-rich state, it is a source of electricity and steel for the country, accounting for 15% of the total steel produced. Chhattisgarh is one of the fastest-developing states in India.The state was formed on 1 November 2000 by partitioning 10 Chhattisgarhi and 6 Gondi speaking southeastern districts of Madhya Pradesh. The capital city is Raipur. Chhattisgarh borders the states of Madhya Pradesh in the northwest, Uttar Pradesh in the north, Jharkhand in northeast, Maharashtra in the southwest, Telangana and Andhra Pradesh in the south, Odisha in the southeast. Currently the state comprises 27 districts.
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Odisha | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Odisha Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Odisha ( (listen); also known by the former name Orissa, ) is one of the 29 states of India. Located in eastern India, it is surrounded by the states of West Bengal to the north-east, Jharkhand to the north, Chhattisgarh to the west and north-west, and Andhra Pradesh to the south. Odisha has 485 kilometres (301 mi) of coastline along the Bay of Bengal on its east, from Balasore to Ganjam. It is the 9th largest state by area, and the 11th largest by population. It is also the 3rd most populous state of India in terms of tribal population. Odia (formerly known as Oriya) is the official and most widely spoken language, spoken by 33.2 million according to the 2001 Census.The ancient kingdom of Kalinga, which was invaded by the Mauryan emperor Ashoka in 261 BCE resulting in the Kalinga War, coincides with the borders of modern-day Odisha. The modern state of Orissa was established on 1 April 1936, as a province in British India, and consisted predominantly of Odia-speaking regions. April 1 is celebrated as Odisha Day (Utkala Dibasa) . The region is also known as Utkala and is mentioned in India's national anthem, "Jana Gana Mana". Cuttack was made the capital of the region by Anantavarman Chodaganga in c. 1135, after which the city was used as the capital by many rulers, through the British era until 1948. Thereafter, Bhubaneswar became the capital of Odisha.
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Gallium
 
28:29
Gallium is a chemical element with symbol Ga and atomic number 31. Elemental gallium does not occur in free form in nature, but as the gallium(III) compounds that are in trace amounts in zinc ores and in bauxite. Gallium is a soft silvery metal, and elemental gallium is a brittle solid at low temperatures. If it is held in the human hand long enough, gallium will melt, since it melts at the temperature of about 29.76 °C (85.57 °F) (slightly above room temperature). The melting point of gallium is used as a temperature reference point. The alloy galinstan (68.5% gallium, 21.5% indium, and 10% tin) has an even lower melting point of −19 °C (−2 °F), well below the freezing point of water. Beginning with its discovery in 1875 through the era of semiconductors, gallium was used primarily as an agent to make alloys that melt at low temperatures. Then, gallium became useful in semiconductors, including as a dopant. Today, nearly all gallium is used in electronics. Gallium arsenide, the primary chemical compound of gallium in electronics, is used in microwave circuits, high-speed switching circuits, and infrared circuits. Gallium nitride and indium gallium nitride, minority semiconductor uses, produce blue and violet light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and diode lasers. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 919 Audiopedia
Aluminium | Wikipedia audio article
 
47:56
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aluminium 00:01:14 1 Physical characteristics 00:01:24 1.1 Nuclei and isotopes 00:02:59 1.2 Electron shell 00:04:17 1.3 Bulk 00:06:08 2 Chemistry 00:08:04 2.1 Inorganic compounds 00:11:28 2.1.1 Rarer oxidation states 00:11:50 2.1.1.1 Aluminium(I) 00:12:56 2.1.1.2 Aluminium(II) 00:13:27 2.2 Organoaluminium compounds and related hydrides 00:15:05 3 Natural occurrence 00:15:15 3.1 In space 00:16:24 3.2 On Earth 00:18:26 4 History 00:24:50 5 Etymology 00:26:01 5.1 Spelling 00:28:44 6 Production and refinement 00:29:52 6.1 Bayer process 00:31:07 6.2 Hall–Héroult process 00:33:30 6.3 Recycling 00:34:50 7 Applications 00:34:59 7.1 Metal 00:37:02 7.2 Compounds 00:40:00 8 Biology 00:40:31 8.1 Toxicity 00:41:26 8.2 Effects 00:43:10 8.3 Exposure routes 00:44:25 8.4 Treatment 00:45:07 9 Environmental effects 00:47:34 10 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "There is only one good, knowledge, and one evil, ignorance." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13. It is a silvery-white, soft, nonmagnetic and ductile metal in the boron group. By mass, aluminium makes up about 8% of the Earth's crust; it is the third most abundant element after oxygen and silicon and the most abundant metal in the crust, though it is less common in the mantle below. The chief ore of aluminium is bauxite. Aluminium metal is so chemically reactive that native specimens are rare and limited to extreme reducing environments. Instead, it is found combined in over 270 different minerals.Aluminium is remarkable for its low density and its ability to resist corrosion through the phenomenon of passivation. Aluminium and its alloys are vital to the aerospace industry and important in transportation and building industries, such as building facades and window frames. The oxides and sulfates are the most useful compounds of aluminium.Despite its prevalence in the environment, no known form of life uses aluminium salts metabolically, but aluminium is well tolerated by plants and animals. Because of these salts' abundance, the potential for a biological role for them is of continuing interest, and studies continue.
Views: 19 wikipedia tts
Economy of Andhra Pradesh | Wikipedia audio article
 
18:23
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Economy of Andhra Pradesh Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ In case you don't find one that you were looking for, put a comment. This video uses Google TTS en-US-Standard-D voice. SUMMARY ======= The economy of Andhra Pradesh is one of the fastest growing economies in India, with growth outstripping that of the wider Indian economy in the past few years. The GSDP at constant (2011-12) Prices for the year 2016-17 (Advance Estimates) is estimated at Rs.5,47,021 crores as against Rs.4,90,134 crores for 2015-16 (First Revised Estimates) indicating a growth of 11.61%. Per Capita Income at current prices increased to Rs.1,22,376 from Rs.1,08,163 in 2015-16 registering a growth of 13.14 percent.The economy is primarily dependent on agriculture, which directly and indirectly employs 62% of the population. The state has been ranked the best state in ease of doing business in the country by the World Bank.
Views: 41 wikipedia tts
Sardinia | Wikipedia audio article
 
01:36:05
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Sardinia 00:01:27 1 Etymology 00:02:48 2 Geography 00:06:24 2.1 Climate 00:09:55 3 History 00:10:03 3.1 Prehistory 00:11:50 3.1.1 Nuragic civilization 00:14:26 3.2 Ancient history 00:16:39 3.3 Vandal conquest 00:18:13 3.4 Byzantine era and the rise of the Judgedoms 00:25:49 3.5 Aragonese period 00:30:07 3.6 Spanish period 00:31:47 3.7 Savoyard period 00:38:44 3.8 Post-Second World War period 00:42:56 4 Education 00:43:55 5 Economy 00:47:09 5.1 Unemployment 00:47:57 5.2 Economic sectors 00:48:10 5.2.1 Primary 00:51:40 5.2.2 Industry and handicraft 00:53:43 5.2.3 Tertiary 00:55:09 6 Communications 00:56:19 7 Transport 00:56:28 7.1 Airports 00:57:33 7.2 Seaports 00:58:31 7.3 Roads 01:00:18 7.4 Railways 01:01:31 8 Demographics 01:03:29 8.1 Life expectancy 01:04:05 8.2 Foreign immigration 01:04:26 8.3 Main cities and Functional Urban Areas 01:05:02 9 Government and politics 01:05:50 9.1 Administrative divisions 01:06:10 9.2 Military installations 01:07:33 10 Culture 01:08:07 10.1 Architecture 01:13:07 10.2 Art 01:15:00 10.3 World Heritage Sites 01:15:20 10.4 Languages 01:18:34 10.5 Literature 01:18:42 10.6 Traditional clothes 01:19:09 10.7 Music 01:21:04 10.8 Cuisine 01:23:04 11 Sports 01:23:13 11.1 Football 01:23:48 11.2 Basketball 01:24:38 11.3 Motor racing 01:25:42 11.4 Water sports 01:27:36 11.5 Winter sports 01:27:57 11.6 Traditional sports 01:28:56 12 Environment 01:30:15 12.1 Fauna 01:33:11 12.2 Beaches 01:33:51 12.3 Natural parks and reserves 01:35:29 13 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Sardinia ( sar-DIN-ee-ə; Italian: Sardegna [sarˈdeɲɲa]; Sardinian: Sardìgna [saɾˈdiɲɲa] or Sardìnnia [saɾˈdinja]; Sassarese: Sardhigna; Gallurese: Saldigna; Algherese: Sardenya; Tabarchino: Sardegna) is the second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea (after Sicily and before Cyprus). It is located west of the Italian Peninsula and to the immediate south of the French island of Corsica. Sardinia is politically a region of Italy, whose official name is Regione Autonoma della Sardegna / Regione Autònoma de Sardigna (Autonomous Region of Sardinia), and enjoys some degree of domestic autonomy granted by a specific Statute. It is divided into four provinces and a metropolitan city, with Cagliari being the region's capital and its largest city as well. Sardinia's indigenous language and the other minority languages (Sassarese, Corsican Gallurese, Algherese Catalan and Ligurian Tabarchino) spoken on the island are recognized by the regional law and enjoy "equal dignity" with Italian.Due to the variety of its ecosystems, which include mountains, woods, plains, largely uninhabited territories, streams, rocky coasts and long sandy beaches, the island has been defined metaphorically as a micro-continent. In the modern era, many travelers and writers have exalted its beauty, remained untouched until the contemporary age and immersed in a landscape that houses the vestiges of the Nuragic civilization.
Views: 45 wikipedia tts
Economy of India | Wikipedia audio article
 
01:40:20
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Economy of India 00:02:38 1 History 00:03:20 1.1 Ancient and medieval eras 00:03:29 1.1.1 Indus Valley Civilisation 00:04:17 1.1.2 West Coast 00:05:11 1.1.3 Silk Route 00:06:12 1.2 Mughal era (1526–1793) 00:10:39 1.3 British era (1793–1947) 00:16:52 1.4 Pre-liberalisation period (1947–1991) 00:20:00 1.5 Post-liberalisation period (since 1991) 00:24:05 2 Data 00:24:23 3 Sectors 00:25:09 4 Agriculture 00:28:55 5 Manufacturing 00:30:18 5.1 Petroleum products and Chemicals 00:31:25 5.2 Pharmaceuticals 00:32:32 5.3 Engineering 00:33:58 5.4 Gems and jewellery 00:35:54 5.5 Textile 00:37:13 5.6 Defence 00:37:44 5.7 Pulp and paper 00:38:01 6 Services 00:38:52 6.1 Aviation 00:40:09 6.1.1 Nationalisation 00:40:52 6.1.2 De-regulation 00:42:45 6.2 Banking and financial services 00:45:43 6.3 Financial technology 00:46:28 6.4 Information technology 00:48:11 6.5 Insurance 00:51:10 6.6 Electricity sector 00:54:16 6.7 Infrastructure 00:56:48 6.8 Retail 00:58:25 6.9 Tourism 01:00:19 6.10 Education 01:00:28 6.11 Entertainment industry 01:00:37 6.12 Healthcare 01:01:29 6.13 Logistics 01:02:00 6.14 Printing 01:02:08 6.15 Telecommunications 01:03:20 7 Mining and Construction 01:03:29 7.1 Mining 01:05:30 7.2 Iron and steel 01:05:59 7.3 Construction 01:06:20 8 Foreign trade and investment 01:06:30 8.1 Foreign trade 01:09:38 8.2 Balance of payments 01:12:31 8.3 Foreign direct investment 01:15:09 8.3.1 Outflows 01:15:46 8.4 Remittances 01:16:27 8.5 Mergers and Acquisitions 01:17:06 9 Currency 01:19:41 10 Income and consumption 01:23:12 10.1 Poverty 01:25:04 11 Employment 01:28:44 12 Economic trends and issues 01:29:53 12.1 Agriculture 01:31:57 12.2 Corruption 01:35:02 12.3 Education 01:35:57 12.4 Economic disparities 01:38:06 13 Security markets 01:39:38 14 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= The economy of India is a developing mixed economy. It is the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP and the third-largest by purchasing power parity (PPP). The country ranks 139th in per capita GDP (nominal) with $2,134 and 122nd in per capita GDP (PPP) with $7,783 as of 2018. After the 1991 economic liberalisation, India achieved 6-7% average GDP growth annually. Since 2014 with the exception of 2017, India's economy has been the world's fastest growing major economy, surpassing China.The long-term growth prospective of the Indian economy is positive due to its young population, corresponding low dependency ratio, healthy savings and investment rates, and increasing integration into the global economy. India topped the World Bank's growth outlook for the first time in fiscal year 2015–16, during which the economy grew 7.6%. Despite previous reforms, economic growth is still significantly slowed by bureaucracy, poor infrastructure, and inflexible labor laws (especially the inability to lay off workers in a business slowdown).India has one of the fastest growing service sectors in the world with an annual growth rate above 9% since 2001, which contributed to 57% of GDP in 2012–13. India has become a major exporter of IT services, Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) services, and software services with $154 billion revenue in FY 2017. This is the fastest-growing part of the economy. The IT industry continues to be the largest private-sector employer in India. India is the third-largest start-up hub in the world with over 3,100 technology start-ups in 2014–15. The agricultural sector is the largest employer in India's economy but contributes to a declining share of its GDP (17% in 2013–14). India ranks second worldwide in farm output. The industry (manufacturing) sector has held a steady share of its economic contribution (26% of GDP in 2013–14). The Indian automobile industry is one of the largest in the world with an annual production of 21.48 million vehicles (mostly two and three-wheelers) in 2013–14. India had $600 billion worth of retail market in 2015 and one of world's fastest growing e-commerce markets.
Views: 97 wikipedia tts
Orissa, India | Wikipedia audio article
 
32:10
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Orissa, India 00:01:34 1 Etymology 00:02:47 2 History 00:07:05 3 Geography 00:08:45 3.1 Climate 00:09:20 3.2 Biodiversity 00:13:54 4 Government and politics 00:14:46 4.1 Legislative assembly 00:16:00 4.2 Administrative units 00:18:38 5 Economy 00:18:47 5.1 Macro-economic trend 00:19:35 5.2 Industrial development 00:21:50 6 Transportation 00:22:19 6.1 Air 00:23:01 6.2 Seaports 00:23:26 6.3 Railways 00:23:54 7 Demographics 00:25:58 7.1 Religion 00:27:22 8 Education 00:28:02 9 Culture 00:28:11 9.1 Cuisine 00:29:04 9.2 Dance 00:29:47 10 Tourism 00:31:34 11 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Odisha (, ; Odia: ଓଡ଼ିଶା, pronounced [oɽɪˈsaː] (listen)) is one of the 29 states of India. Located in eastern India, it is surrounded by the states of West Bengal to the north-east, Jharkhand to the north, Chhattisgarh to the west and north-west, and Andhra Pradesh to the south. Odisha has 485 kilometres (301 mi) of coastline along the Bay of Bengal on its east, from Balasore to Ganjam. It is the 9th largest state by area, and the 11th largest by population. It is also the 3rd most populous state of India in terms of tribal population. Odia is the official and most widely spoken language, spoken by 60 million according to the 2016 Census.The ancient kingdom of Kalinga, which was invaded by the Mauryan emperor Ashoka in 261 BCE resulting in the Kalinga War, coincides with the borders of modern-day Odisha. The modern state of Odisha was established on 1 April 1936, as a province in British India, and consisted predominantly of Odia-speaking regions. April 1 is celebrated as Odisha Day (Utkala Dibasa) . The region is also known as Utkala and is mentioned in India's national anthem, "Jana Gana Mana". Cuttack was made the capital of the region by Anantavarman Chodaganga in c. 1135, after which the city was used as the capital by many rulers, through the British era until 1948. Thereafter, Bhubaneswar became the capital of Odisha.The Capital i.e. Bhubaneswar lies within Khordha district.
Views: 10 wikipedia tts
Gallium | Wikipedia audio article
 
34:54
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gallium 00:02:07 1 Physical properties 00:07:09 1.1 Isotopes 00:08:33 2 Chemical properties 00:09:28 2.1 Aqueous chemistry 00:10:35 2.2 Oxides and chalcogenides 00:12:38 2.3 Nitrides and pnictides 00:13:49 2.4 Halides 00:16:15 2.5 Hydrides 00:17:13 2.6 Organogallium compounds 00:18:55 3 History 00:21:25 4 Occurrence 00:22:54 5 Production and availability 00:25:25 6 Applications 00:25:45 6.1 Semiconductors 00:27:45 6.2 Galinstan and other alloys 00:28:57 6.3 Biomedical applications 00:31:11 6.3.1 Radiogallium salts 00:32:29 6.4 Other uses 00:34:02 7 Precautions Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "There is only one good, knowledge, and one evil, ignorance." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Gallium is a chemical element with symbol Ga and atomic number 31. It is in group 13 of the periodic table, and thus has similarities to the other metals of the group, aluminium, indium, and thallium. Gallium does not occur as a free element in nature, but as gallium(III) compounds in trace amounts in zinc ores and in bauxite. Elemental gallium is a soft, silvery blue metal at standard temperature and pressure, a brittle solid at low temperatures, and a liquid at temperatures greater than 29.76 °C (85.57 °F) (above room temperature, but below the normal human body temperature of 98.6 °F (37.0 °C), hence, the metal will melt in a person's hands). The melting point of gallium is used as a temperature reference point. Gallium alloys are used in thermometers as a non-toxic and environmentally friendly alternative to mercury, and can withstand higher temperatures than mercury. The alloy galinstan (70% gallium, 21.5% indium, and 10% tin) has an even lower melting point of −19 °C (−2 °F), well below the freezing point of water. Since its discovery in 1875, gallium has been used to make alloys with low melting points. It is also used in semiconductors as a dopant in semiconductor substrates. Gallium is predominantly used in electronics. Gallium arsenide, the primary chemical compound of gallium in electronics, is used in microwave circuits, high-speed switching circuits, and infrared circuits. Semiconducting gallium nitride and indium gallium nitride produce blue and violet light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and diode lasers. Gallium is also used in the production of artificial gadolinium gallium garnet for jewelry. Gallium has no known natural role in biology. Gallium(III) behaves in a similar manner to ferric salts in biological systems and has been used in some medical applications, including pharmaceuticals and radiopharmaceuticals.
Views: 8 Subhajit Sahu
Belize | Wikipedia audio article
 
01:11:26
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Belize Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ In case you don't find one that you were looking for, put a comment. This video uses Google TTS en-US-Standard-D voice. SUMMARY ======= Belize ( ( listen)) (Spanish: Belice), is a country located on the eastern coast of Central America. Belize is bordered on the northwest by Mexico, on the east by the Caribbean Sea, and on the south and west by Guatemala. It has an area of 22,800 square kilometres (8,800 sq mi) and a population of 387,879 (2017). Its mainland is about 290 km (180 mi) long and 110 km (68 mi) wide. It has the lowest population and population density in Central America. The country's population growth rate of 1.87% per year (2015) is the second highest in the region and one of the highest in the Western Hemisphere.The Mayan civilization spread into the area of Belize between 1500 B.C. and 300 A.D. and flourished until about 1200. European exploration campaigns began in 1502 when Christopher Columbus sailed along the Gulf of Honduras. European settlement begun by English settlers in 1638, this period was also marked by Spain and Britain lay claim to the land until Britain defeated the Spanish in the Battle of St. George's Caye (1798). It became a British colony in 1840, known as British Honduras, and a Crown colony in 1862. Independence was achieved from the United Kingdom on 21 September 1981. Belize has a diverse society, composed of many cultures and languages that reflect its rich history. English is the official language of Belize, while Belizean Creole is an unofficial native language. Over half the population is multilingual, with Spanish being the second most common spoken language. It is known for its September Celebrations, its extensive barrier reef coral reefs and punta music.Belize's abundance of terrestrial and marine species and its diversity of ecosystems give it a key place in the globally significant Mesoamerican Biological Corridor. It is considered a Central American and Caribbean nation with strong ties to both the American and Caribbean regions. It is a member of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM), the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC), and the Central American Integration System (SICA), the only country to hold full membership in all three regional organisations. Belize is a Commonwealth realm, with Queen Elizabeth II as its monarch and head of state.
Views: 25 wikipedia tts
Metal | Wikipedia audio article
 
54:28
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Metal 00:02:50 1 Properties 00:02:59 1.1 Form and structure 00:06:47 1.2 Electrical and thermal 00:08:53 1.3 Chemical 00:09:56 2 Periodic table distribution 00:10:36 3 Alloys 00:12:54 4 Categories 00:13:44 4.1 Ferrous and non-ferrous metals 00:14:13 4.2 Brittle metal 00:14:43 4.3 Refractory metal 00:15:14 4.4 White metal 00:15:51 4.5 Heavy and light metals 00:16:19 4.6 Base, noble and precious metals 00:18:40 5 Lifecycle 00:18:49 5.1 Formation 00:21:10 5.2 Abundance and occurrence 00:23:39 5.3 Extraction 00:25:04 5.4 Uses 00:28:05 5.5 Recycling 00:29:48 6 Biological interactions 00:30:28 7 History 00:30:37 7.1 Prehistory 00:31:31 7.2 Antiquity 00:34:13 7.3 Middle Ages 00:35:46 7.4 The Renaissance 00:38:18 7.5 Light metals 00:40:47 7.6 The age of steel 00:42:17 7.7 The last stable metallic elements 00:44:21 7.8 Post-World War II developments 00:44:30 7.8.1 Superalloys 00:45:17 7.8.2 Transcurium metals 00:46:19 7.8.3 Bulk metallic glasses 00:47:38 7.8.4 Shape-memory alloys 00:48:35 7.8.5 Quasicyrstalline alloys 00:50:39 7.8.6 Complex metallic alloys 00:51:58 7.8.7 High entropy alloys 00:52:40 7.8.8 MAX phase alloys 00:54:14 8 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material that, when freshly prepared, polished, or fractured, shows a lustrous appearance, and conducts electricity and heat relatively well. Metals are typically malleable (they can be hammered into thin sheets) or ductile (can be drawn into wires). A metal may be a chemical element such as iron, or an alloy such as stainless steel. In physics, a metal is generally regarded as any substance capable of conducting electricity at a temperature of absolute zero. Many elements and compounds that are not normally classified as metals become metallic under high pressures. For example, the nonmetal iodine gradually becomes a metal at a pressure of between 40 and 170 thousand times atmospheric pressure. Equally, some materials regarded as metals can become nonmetals. Sodium, for example, becomes a nonmetal at pressure of just under two million times atmospheric pressure. In chemistry, two elements that would otherwise qualify (in physics) as brittle metals—arsenic and antimony—are commonly instead recognised as metalloids, on account of their predominately non-metallic chemistry. Around 95 of the 118 elements in the periodic table are metals (or are likely to be such). The number is inexact as the boundaries between metals, nonmetals, and metalloids fluctuate slightly due to a lack of universally accepted definitions of the categories involved. In astrophysics the term "metal" is cast more widely to refer to all chemical elements in a star that are heavier than the lightest two, hydrogen and helium, and not just traditional metals. A star fuses lighter atoms, mostly hydrogen and helium, into heavier atoms over its lifetime. Used in that sense, the metallicity of an astronomical object is the proportion of its matter made up of the heavier chemical elements.Metals comprise 25% of the Earth's crust and are present in many aspects of modern life. The strength and resilience of some metals has led to their frequent use in, for example, high-rise building and bridge construction, as well as most vehicles, many home appliances, tools, pipes, and railroad tracks. Precious metals were historically used as coinage, but in the modern era, coinage metals have extended to at least 23 of the chemical elements.The history of metals is thought to begin with the use of copper about 11,000 years ago. Gold, silver, iron (as meteoric iron), lead, and brass were likewise in use before the first known appearance of bronze in the 5th millennium BCE. Subsequent developments include the production of early forms of steel; the discovery of sodium—the first light metal—in 1809; the rise of modern alloy steels; and, since the end of World War II, the development of more sophisticated alloys.
Views: 28 wikipedia tts
Odisha | Wikipedia audio article
 
31:59
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Odisha 00:01:30 1 Etymology 00:02:43 2 History 00:07:00 3 Geography 00:08:39 3.1 Climate 00:09:14 3.2 Biodiversity 00:13:48 4 Government and politics 00:14:39 4.1 Legislative assembly 00:15:53 4.2 Administrative units 00:18:31 5 Economy 00:18:40 5.1 Macro-economic trend 00:19:28 5.2 Industrial development 00:21:42 6 Transportation 00:22:11 6.1 Air 00:22:53 6.2 Seaports 00:23:17 6.3 Railways 00:23:46 7 Demographics 00:25:49 7.1 Religion 00:27:12 8 Education 00:27:52 9 Culture 00:28:01 9.1 Cuisine 00:28:53 9.2 Dance 00:29:37 10 Tourism 00:31:23 11 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Odisha (, ; Odia: ଓଡ଼ିଶା, pronounced [oɽɪˈsaː] (listen)) is one of the 29 states of India. Located in eastern India, it is surrounded by the states of West Bengal to the north-east, Jharkhand to the north, Chhattisgarh to the west and north-west, and Andhra Pradesh to the south. Odisha has 485 kilometres (301 mi) of coastline along the Bay of Bengal on its east, from Balasore to Ganjam. It is the 9th largest state by area, and the 11th largest by population. It is also the 3rd most populous state of India in terms of tribal population. Odia (formerly known as Oriya) is the official and most widely spoken language, spoken by 60 million according to the 2016 Census.The ancient kingdom of Kalinga, which was invaded by the Mauryan emperor Ashoka in 261 BCE resulting in the Kalinga War, coincides with the borders of modern-day Odisha. The modern state of Orissa was established on 1 April 1936, as a province in British India, and consisted predominantly of Odia-speaking regions. April 1 is celebrated as Odisha Day (Utkala Dibasa) . The region is also known as Utkala and is mentioned in India's national anthem, "Jana Gana Mana". Cuttack was made the capital of the region by Anantavarman Chodaganga in c. 1135, after which the city was used as the capital by many rulers, through the British era until 1948. Thereafter, Bhubaneswar became the capital of Odisha.
Views: 12 wikipedia tts
Sardinia | Wikipedia audio article
 
01:37:14
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Sardinia Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Sardinia ( sar-DIN-ee-ə; Italian: Sardegna [sarˈdeɲɲa], Sardinian: Sardìgna/Sardìnnia [saɾˈdiɲɲa]/[saɾˈdinja], Sassarese: Sardhigna, Gallurese: Saldigna, Catalan: Sardenya, Tabarchino: Sardegna) is the second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea (after Sicily and before Cyprus). It is located west of the Italian Peninsula and to the immediate south of the French island of Corsica. Sardinia is politically a region of Italy, whose official name is Regione Autonoma della Sardegna / Regione Autònoma de Sardigna (Autonomous Region of Sardinia), and enjoys some degree of domestic autonomy granted by a specific Statute. It is divided into four provinces and a metropolitan city, with Cagliari being the region's capital and its largest city as well. Sardinia's indigenous language and the other minority languages (Sassarese, Corsican Gallurese, Algherese Catalan and Ligurian Tabarchino) spoken on the island are recognized by the regional law and enjoy "equal dignity" with Italian.Due to the variety of its ecosystems, which include mountains, woods, plains, largely uninhabited territories, streams, rocky coasts and long sandy beaches, the island has been defined metaphorically as a micro-continent. In the modern era, many travelers and writers have exalted its beauty, remained untouched until the contemporary age and immersed in a landscape that houses the vestiges of the Nuragic civilization.
Views: 138 wikipedia tts
Gallium | Wikipedia audio article
 
34:44
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Gallium 00:02:07 1 Physical properties 00:07:07 1.1 Isotopes 00:08:30 2 Chemical properties 00:09:24 2.1 Aqueous chemistry 00:10:31 2.2 Oxides and chalcogenides 00:12:34 2.3 Nitrides and pnictides 00:13:45 2.4 Halides 00:16:10 2.5 Hydrides 00:17:07 2.6 Organogallium compounds 00:18:48 3 History 00:21:18 4 Occurrence 00:22:46 5 Production and availability 00:25:16 6 Applications 00:25:37 6.1 Semiconductors 00:27:36 6.2 Galinstan and other alloys 00:28:47 6.3 Biomedical applications 00:31:01 6.3.1 Radiogallium salts 00:32:19 6.4 Other uses 00:33:53 7 Precautions Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Gallium is a chemical element with symbol Ga and atomic number 31. It is in group 13 of the periodic table, and thus has similarities to the other metals of the group, aluminium, indium, and thallium. Gallium does not occur as a free element in nature, but as gallium(III) compounds in trace amounts in zinc ores and in bauxite. Elemental gallium is a soft, silvery blue metal at standard temperature and pressure, a brittle solid at low temperatures, and a liquid at temperatures greater than 29.76 °C (85.57 °F) (above room temperature, but below the normal human body temperature of 98.6 °F (37.0 °C), hence, the metal will melt in a person's hands). The melting point of gallium is used as a temperature reference point. Gallium alloys are used in thermometers as a non-toxic and environmentally friendly alternative to mercury, and can withstand higher temperatures than mercury. The alloy galinstan (70% gallium, 21.5% indium, and 10% tin) has an even lower melting point of −19 °C (−2 °F), well below the freezing point of water. Since its discovery in 1875, gallium has been used to make alloys with low melting points. It is also used in semiconductors as a dopant in semiconductor substrates. Gallium is predominantly used in electronics. Gallium arsenide, the primary chemical compound of gallium in electronics, is used in microwave circuits, high-speed switching circuits, and infrared circuits. Semiconducting gallium nitride and indium gallium nitride produce blue and violet light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and diode lasers. Gallium is also used in the production of artificial gadolinium gallium garnet for jewelry. Gallium has no known natural role in biology. Gallium(III) behaves in a similar manner to ferric salts in biological systems and has been used in some medical applications, including pharmaceuticals and radiopharmaceuticals.
Views: 29 wikipedia tts
Odisha | Wikipedia audio article
 
32:11
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Odisha 00:01:35 1 Etymology 00:02:48 2 History 00:07:06 3 Geography 00:08:46 3.1 Climate 00:09:22 3.2 Biodiversity 00:13:56 4 Government and politics 00:14:47 4.1 Legislative assembly 00:16:01 4.2 Administrative units 00:18:40 5 Economy 00:18:49 5.1 Macro-economic trend 00:19:36 5.2 Industrial development 00:21:51 6 Transportation 00:22:21 6.1 Air 00:23:02 6.2 Seaports 00:23:27 6.3 Railways 00:23:56 7 Demographics 00:26:00 7.1 Religion 00:27:23 8 Education 00:28:04 9 Culture 00:28:12 9.1 Cuisine 00:29:05 9.2 Dance 00:29:49 10 Tourism 00:31:35 11 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Odisha (, ; Odia: ଓଡ଼ିଶା, pronounced [oɽɪˈsaː] (listen)) is one of the 29 states of India. Located in eastern India, it is surrounded by the states of West Bengal to the north-east, Jharkhand to the north, Chhattisgarh to the west and north-west, and Andhra Pradesh to the south. Odisha has 485 kilometres (301 mi) of coastline along the Bay of Bengal on its east, from Balasore to Ganjam. It is the 9th largest state by area, and the 11th largest by population. It is also the 3rd most populous state of India in terms of tribal population. Odia (formerly known as Oriya) is the official and most widely spoken language, spoken by 60 million according to the 2016 Census.The ancient kingdom of Kalinga, which was invaded by the Mauryan emperor Ashoka in 261 BCE resulting in the Kalinga War, coincides with the borders of modern-day Odisha. The modern state of Orissa was established on 1 April 1936, as a province in British India, and consisted predominantly of Odia-speaking regions. April 1 is celebrated as Odisha Day (Utkala Dibasa) . The region is also known as Utkala and is mentioned in India's national anthem, "Jana Gana Mana". Cuttack was made the capital of the region by Anantavarman Chodaganga in c. 1135, after which the city was used as the capital by many rulers, through the British era until 1948. Thereafter, Bhubaneswar became the capital of Odisha. The Capital i.e. Bhubaneswar lies within Khordha district.
Views: 8 wikipedia tts
Languages of Laos | Wikipedia audio article
 
01:03:56
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Languages of Laos Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ In case you don't find one that you were looking for, put a comment. This video uses Google TTS en-US-Standard-D voice. SUMMARY ======= Laos ( ( listen), ; Lao: ລາວ, Lāo [láːw]), officially the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao: ສາທາລະນະລັດ ປະຊາທິປະໄຕ ປະຊາຊົນລາວ, translit. Sathalanalat Paxathipatai Paxaxon Lao; French: République démocratique populaire lao), commonly referred to by its colloquial name of Muang Lao (Lao: ເມືອງລາວ, Muang Lao), is a socialist state and the only landlocked country in Southeast Asia at the heart of the Indochinese peninsula, bordered by Myanmar (Burma) and China to the northwest, Vietnam to the east, Cambodia to the southwest, and Thailand to the west and southwest.Present-day Laos traces its historic and cultural identity to the kingdom of Lan Xang Hom Khao (Kingdom of a Million Elephants Under the White Parasol), which existed for four centuries as one of the largest kingdoms in Southeast Asia. Due to Lan Xang's central geographical location in Southeast Asia, the kingdom became a popular hub for overland trade, becoming wealthy economically as well as culturally. After a period of internal conflict, Lan Xang broke off into three separate kingdoms—Luang Phrabang, Vientiane and Champasak. In 1893, it became a French protectorate, with the three territories uniting to form what is now known as the country of Laos. It briefly gained freedom in 1945 after Japanese occupation, but was recolonised by France until it won autonomy in 1949. Laos became independent in 1953, with a constitutional monarchy under Sisavang Vong. Shortly after independence, a long civil war ended the monarchy, when the Communist Pathet Lao movement came to power in 1975. During the first years of Communist rule, Laos was dependent on military and economic aid supported by the Soviet Union until its dissolution in 1991. According to the anti-corruption non-governmental organisation Transparency International, Laos remains one of the most corrupt countries in the world. This has deterred foreign investment and created major problems with the rule of law, including the nation's ability to enforce contract and business regulation. This has contributed to a third of the population of Laos currently living below the international poverty line (living on less than US$1.25 per day). Laos has a low-income economy, with one of the lowest annual incomes in the world. In 2014, the country ranked 141st on the Human Development Index (HDI), indicating lower medium development. According to the Global Hunger Index (2015), Laos ranks as the 29th hungriest nation in the world out of the list of the 52 nations with the worst hunger situation(s). The country has also had a poor human rights record. Laos is a member of the Asia-Pacific Trade Agreement (APTA), Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), East Asia Summit and La Francophonie. Laos applied for membership of the World Trade Organisation (WTO) in 1997; on 2 February 2013, it was granted full membership. It is a one-party socialist republic espousing Marxism–Leninism governed by the Lao People's Revolutionary Party, in which the party leadership is dominated by military figures.The capital and largest city is Vientiane. Other major cities include Luang Prabang, Savannakhet and Pakse. The official language is Lao. Laos is a multi-ethnic country, with the politically and culturally dominant Lao people making up about 55 percent of the population, mostly in the lowlands. Mon-Khmer groups, the Hmong and other indigenous hill tribes, accounting for 45 percent of the population, live in the foothills and mountains. Laos's ambitious strategies for development are based on generating electricity from its rivers and selling the power to its neighbours, namely Thailand, China and Vietnam, as well as its initiative to become a "land-linked" nation, shown by the planning of four new railways connecting Laos to its neighbours. Laos has been referred to as one of East Asia and Pacific's Fastest Growing Economies by the World Bank, with annual GDP growth averaging 7.8% for the past decade.
Views: 45 wikipedia tts
Soil | Wikipedia audio article
 
02:59:48
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soil 00:02:47 1 Overview 00:02:56 1.1 Functions 00:06:05 1.2 Description 00:11:19 2 History of studies 00:11:28 2.1 Fertility 00:18:11 2.2 Formation 00:20:26 3 Formation 00:22:51 3.1 Factors 00:23:24 3.1.1 Parent material 00:26:55 3.1.1.1 Weathering 00:32:47 3.1.2 Climate 00:37:40 3.1.3 Topography 00:39:43 3.1.4 Organisms 00:46:49 3.1.5 Time 00:49:09 4 Physical properties 00:50:50 4.1 Texture 00:56:05 4.2 Structure 01:02:42 4.3 Density 01:04:37 4.4 Porosity 01:06:18 4.5 Consistency 01:08:34 4.6 Temperature 01:16:16 4.7 Color 01:18:48 4.8 Resistivity 01:19:36 5 Water 01:23:49 5.1 Water retention forces 01:25:06 5.2 Moisture classification 01:26:33 5.3 Soil moisture content 01:27:44 5.4 Water flow 01:29:53 5.4.1 Saturated 01:31:11 5.4.2 Unsaturated 01:32:14 5.5 Water uptake by plants 01:35:31 5.6 Consumptive use and water use efficiency 01:37:12 6 Atmosphere 01:40:54 7 Composition of the solid phase (soil matrix) 01:41:35 7.1 Gravel, sand and silt 01:42:27 7.2 Mineral colloids; soil clays 01:45:50 7.2.1 Alumino-silica clays 01:50:05 7.2.2 Crystalline chain clays 01:50:24 7.2.3 Amorphous clays 01:51:26 7.2.4 Sesquioxide clays 01:52:48 7.3 Organic colloids 01:53:40 7.4 Carbon and terra preta 01:54:56 8 Chemistry 01:56:39 8.1 Cation and anion exchange 02:00:07 8.1.1 Cation exchange capacity (CEC) 02:01:43 8.1.2 Anion exchange capacity (AEC) 02:03:11 8.2 Reactivity (pH) 02:04:44 8.2.1 Base saturation percentage 02:06:39 8.3 Buffering 02:06:49 9 Nutrients 02:07:28 9.1 Uptake processes 02:08:26 9.2 Carbon 02:10:06 9.3 Nitrogen 02:12:42 9.3.1 Gains 02:16:50 9.3.2 Sequestration 02:18:30 9.3.3 Losses 02:20:58 9.4 Phosphorus 02:23:45 9.5 Potassium 02:24:53 9.6 Calcium 02:26:15 9.7 Magnesium 02:27:56 9.8 Sulfur 02:28:55 9.9 Micronutrients 02:29:36 9.10 Non-essential nutrients 02:30:12 10 Soil organic matter 02:31:23 10.1 Humus 02:32:24 10.2 Climatological influence 02:32:52 10.3 Plant residue 02:36:11 11 Horizons 02:40:03 12 Classification 02:41:08 12.1 Systems 02:42:02 12.1.1 Australia 02:43:36 12.1.2 European Union 02:44:46 12.1.3 United States 02:44:55 13 Uses 02:45:25 14 Degradation 02:45:46 15 Reclamation 02:46:35 16 See also 02:50:58 17 References 02:57:13 18 Further reading Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.8409238058485481 Voice name: en-GB-Wavenet-B "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Soil is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support life. Earth's body of soil, called the pedosphere, has four important functions: as a medium for plant growth as a means of water storage, supply and purification as a modifier of Earth's atmosphere as a habitat for organismsAll of these functions, in their turn, modify the soil. The pedosphere interfaces with the lithosphere, the hydrosphere, the atmosphere, and the biosphere. The term pedolith, used commonly to refer to the soil, translates to ground stone in the sense "fundamental stone". Soil consists of a solid phase of minerals and organic matter (the soil matrix), as well as a porous phase that holds gases (the soil atmosphere) and water (the soil solution). Accordingly, soil scientists can envisage soils as a three-state system of solids, liquids, and gases.Soil is a product of several factors: the influence of climate, relief (elevation, orientation, and slope of terrain), organisms, and the soil's parent materials (original minerals) interacting over time. It continually undergoes development by way of numerous physical, chemical and biological processes, which include weathering with associated erosion. Given its complexity and strong internal connectedness, soil ecologists regard soil as an ecosystem.Most soils have a dry bulk density (density of soil taking into account voids when dry) between 1.1 and 1.6 g/cm3, while the soil particle density is much higher, in the range of 2.6 to 2.7 g/cm3. Little of the soi ...
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Metal
 
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A metal is a solid material that is typically hard, opaque, shiny, and features good electrical and thermal conductivity. Metals are generally malleable—that is, they can be hammered or pressed permanently out of shape without breaking or cracking—as well as fusible and ductile . 91 of the 118 elements in the periodic table are metals. This video targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Public domain image source in video
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Sierra Leone | Wikipedia audio article
 
01:57:41
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Sierra Leone Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ In case you don't find one that you were looking for, put a comment. This video uses Google TTS en-US-Standard-D voice. SUMMARY ======= Sierra Leone (, UK also ), officially the Republic of Sierra Leone, is a country in West Africa. It is bordered by Guinea to the northeast, Liberia to the southeast and the Atlantic Ocean to the southwest. It has a tropical climate, with a diverse environment ranging from savanna to rainforests. The country has a total area of 71,740 km2 (27,699 sq mi) and a population of 7,075,641 as of the 2015 census. Sierra Leone is a constitutional republic with a directly elected president and a unicameral legislature. Sierra Leone has a dominant unitary central government. The president is the head of state and the head of government. The country's capital and largest city is Freetown. Kenema, located 185 miles from Freetown, is the country's second most populous city. Other major cities with a population above one hundred thousand are Bo, Koidu Town and Makeni. Sierra Leone is made up of five administrative regions: the Northern Province, North West Province, Eastern Province, Southern Province and the Western Area. These regions are subdivided into sixteen districts.Sierra Leone became independent from the United Kingdom on 27 April 1961, led by Sir Milton Margai, who became the country's first prime minister. In May 1962, Sierra Leone held its first general elections as an independent nation. Siaka Stevens" All People's Congress won the 1967 Sierra Leone parliamentary election over the governing Sierra Leone People's Party. Stevens ruled Sierra Leone from 1968 to 1985 in which he was intolerance of opposions and critics of his government. In 1971, Stevens abolished Sierra Leone's parliamentary government system and declared Sierra Leone a presidential republic. Sierra Leone was a one-party state from 1978 to 1985, in which Stevens' All People's Congress was the only legal political party in the country. The current constitution of Sierra Leone, which includes multi party democracy, was adopted in 1991 by the government of President Joseph Saidu Momoh, Stevens' hand-picked successor. In 1991, a rebel group known as the Revolutionary United Front led by former Sierra Leone army Corporal Foday Sankoh launched a brutal civil war in the country. In April 1992 a group of Junior military officers toppled Momoh from power and 25-year-old Captain Valentine Strasser became the head of state. In January 1996 Strasser was toppled from power by his deputy, Brigadier General Julius Maada Bio. Bio returned the country to multi-party democracy and the 1991 constitution was reestablished. Bio handed power to Ahmad Tejan Kabbah of the Sierra Leone People's Party after his victory in the 1996 Sierra Leone presidential election. In 1997, the military overthrew president Kabbah. However, in February 1998, a coalition of West African Ecowas armed forces led by Nigeria, removed the military Junta from power by force and president Kabbah was reinstated as president. In 1998, the coup leaders were executed after they were sentenced to death by a military court martial. Sierra Leone has had an uninterrupted democracy since 1998 to present. In January 2002, President Ahmad Tejan Kabbah fulfilled his campaign promise by officially ending the civil war as the rebels were defeated by military force with the help and support of Ecowas, the British government, the African Union, and the United Nations. About 16 ethnic groups inhabit Sierra Leone, each with its own language and customs. The two largest and most influential are the Temne and Mende. The Temne are predominantly found in the northwest of the country, and the Mende are predominant in the southeast. Comprising a small minority, about 2%, are the Krio people, who are descendants of freed African-American and West Indian slaves. The Krios are overwhelmingly found in the capital Freetown and its surrounding countryside. Although English is the official language, used in schools and government administration, Krio, an English-based creole, is the most widely spoken language across Sier ...
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Metal | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metal 00:02:50 1 Properties 00:02:59 1.1 Form and structure 00:06:48 1.2 Electrical and thermal 00:08:54 1.3 Chemical 00:09:57 2 Periodic table distribution 00:10:38 3 Alloys 00:12:56 4 Categories 00:13:46 4.1 Ferrous and non-ferrous metals 00:14:16 4.2 Brittle metal 00:14:45 4.3 Refractory metal 00:15:17 4.4 White metal 00:15:54 4.5 Heavy and light metals 00:16:22 4.6 Base, noble and precious metals 00:18:44 5 Lifecycle 00:18:53 5.1 Formation 00:21:14 5.2 Abundance and occurrence 00:23:44 5.3 Extraction 00:25:09 5.4 Uses 00:28:11 5.5 Recycling 00:29:54 6 Biological interactions 00:30:34 7 History 00:30:43 7.1 Prehistory 00:31:36 7.2 Antiquity 00:34:20 7.3 Middle Ages 00:35:53 7.4 The Renaissance 00:38:25 7.5 Light metals 00:40:55 7.6 The age of steel 00:42:25 7.7 The last stable metallic elements 00:44:29 7.8 Post-World War II developments 00:44:39 7.8.1 Superalloys 00:45:26 7.8.2 Transcurium metals 00:46:27 7.8.3 Bulk metallic glasses 00:47:47 7.8.4 Shape-memory alloys 00:48:45 7.8.5 Quasicyrstalline alloys 00:50:48 7.8.6 Complex metallic alloys 00:52:07 7.8.7 High entropy alloys 00:52:49 7.8.8 MAX phase alloys 00:54:24 8 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "There is only one good, knowledge, and one evil, ignorance." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material that, when freshly prepared, polished, or fractured, shows a lustrous appearance, and conducts electricity and heat relatively well. Metals are typically malleable (they can be hammered into thin sheets) or ductile (can be drawn into wires). A metal may be a chemical element such as iron, or an alloy such as stainless steel. In physics, a metal is generally regarded as any substance capable of conducting electricity at a temperature of absolute zero. Many elements and compounds that are not normally classified as metals become metallic under high pressures. For example, the nonmetal iodine gradually becomes a metal at a pressure of between 40 and 170 thousand times atmospheric pressure. Equally, some materials regarded as metals can become nonmetals. Sodium, for example, becomes a nonmetal at pressure of just under two million times atmospheric pressure. In chemistry, two elements that would otherwise qualify (in physics) as brittle metals—arsenic and antimony—are commonly instead recognised as metalloids, on account of their predominately non-metallic chemistry. Around 95 of the 118 elements in the periodic table are metals (or are likely to be such). The number is inexact as the boundaries between metals, nonmetals, and metalloids fluctuate slightly due to a lack of universally accepted definitions of the categories involved. In astrophysics the term "metal" is cast more widely to refer to all chemical elements in a star that are heavier than the lightest two, hydrogen and helium, and not just traditional metals. A star fuses lighter atoms, mostly hydrogen and helium, into heavier atoms over its lifetime. Used in that sense, the metallicity of an astronomical object is the proportion of its matter made up of the heavier chemical elements.Metals comprise 25% of the Earth's crust and are present in many aspects of modern life. The strength and resilience of some metals has led to their frequent use in, for example, high-rise building and bridge construction, as well as most vehicles, many home appliances, tools, pipes, and railroad tracks. Precious metals were historically used as coinage, but in the modern era, coinage metals have extended to at least 23 of the chemical elements.The history of metals is thought to begin with the use of copper about 11,000 years ago. Gold, silver, iron (as meteoric iron), lead, and brass were likewise in use before the first known appearance of bronze in the 5th millennium BCE. Subsequent developments include the production of early forms of steel; the discovery of sodium—the first light metal�� ...
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Belize | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Belize Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ In case you don't find one that you were looking for, put a comment. This video uses Google TTS en-US-Standard-D voice. SUMMARY ======= Belize ( ( listen)) (Spanish: Belice) is a country located on the eastern coast of Central America. Belize is bordered on the northwest by Mexico, on the east by the Caribbean Sea, and on the south and west by Guatemala. It has an area of 22,800 square kilometres (8,800 sq mi) and a population of 387,879 (2017). Its mainland is about 290 km (180 mi) long and 110 km (68 mi) wide. It has the lowest population and population density in Central America. The country's population growth rate of 1.87% per year (2015) is the second highest in the region and one of the highest in the Western Hemisphere.The Mayan civilization spread into the area of Belize between 1500 B.C. and 300 A.D. and flourished until about 1200. European exploration campaigns began in 1502 when Christopher Columbus sailed along the Gulf of Honduras. European settlement begun by English settlers in 1638, this period was also marked by Spain and Britain lay claim to the land until Britain defeated the Spanish in the Battle of St. George's Caye (1798). It became a British colony in 1840, known as British Honduras, and a Crown colony in 1862. Independence was achieved from the United Kingdom on 21 September 1981. Belize has a diverse society, composed of many cultures and languages that reflect its rich history. English is the official language of Belize, while Belizean Creole is an unofficial native language. Over half the population is multilingual, with Spanish being the second most common spoken language. It is known for its September Celebrations, its extensive barrier reef coral reefs and punta music.Belize's abundance of terrestrial and marine species and its diversity of ecosystems give it a key place in the globally significant Mesoamerican Biological Corridor. It is considered a Central American and Caribbean nation with strong ties to both the American and Caribbean regions. It is a member of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM), the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC), and the Central American Integration System (SICA), the only country to hold full membership in all three regional organisations. Belize is a Commonwealth realm, with Queen Elizabeth II as its monarch and head of state.
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Recycling | Wikipedia audio article
 
01:27:40
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Recycling 00:03:12 1 History 00:03:21 1.1 Origins 00:06:58 1.2 Wartime 00:09:24 1.3 Post-World War II 00:13:49 2 Legislation 00:13:59 2.1 Supply 00:16:32 2.2 Government-mandated demand 00:19:33 3 Recyclates 00:20:21 3.1 Quality of recyclate 00:24:31 3.2 Quality recyclate action plan (Scotland) 00:26:22 4 Recycling consumer waste 00:26:33 4.1 Collection 00:27:11 4.1.1 Curbside collection 00:28:50 4.1.1.1 Source separation 00:29:58 4.1.2 Buy-back centers 00:31:25 4.1.3 Drop-off centers 00:31:57 4.1.4 Distributed recycling 00:32:43 4.2 Sorting 00:36:58 4.3 Rinsing 00:37:34 5 Recycling industrial waste 00:42:24 5.1 E-waste recycling 00:45:09 5.2 Plastic recycling 00:45:45 5.2.1 Physical recycling 00:46:21 5.2.2 Chemical recycling 00:46:56 5.2.3 Waste plastic pyrolysis to fuel oil 00:48:43 6 Recycling loops 00:50:26 7 Recycling codes 00:53:07 8 Cost–benefit analysis 01:00:12 8.1 Trade in recyclates 01:03:12 9 Criticisms and responses 01:06:44 9.1 Energy and material flows 01:15:15 9.2 Costs 01:17:54 9.3 Working conditions 01:18:53 9.4 Environmental impact 01:20:57 9.5 Possible income loss and social costs 01:23:47 10 Public participation rates 01:25:38 11 Recycling in art 01:27:25 12 Related journals Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.708917607449 Voice name: en-US-Wavenet-D "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Recycling is the process of converting waste materials into new materials and objects. It is an alternative to "conventional" waste disposal that can save material and help lower greenhouse gas emissions. Recycling can prevent the waste of potentially useful materials and reduce the consumption of fresh raw materials, thereby reducing: energy usage, air pollution (from incineration), and water pollution (from landfilling). Recycling is a key component of modern waste reduction and is the third component of the "Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle" waste hierarchy. Thus, recycling aims at environmental sustainability by substituting raw material inputs into and redirecting waste outputs out of the economic system.There are some ISO standards related to recycling such as ISO 15270:2008 for plastics waste and ISO 14001:2015 for environmental management control of recycling practice. Recyclable materials include many kinds of glass, paper, cardboard, metal, plastic, tires, textiles, batteries, and electronics. The composting or other reuse of biodegradable waste—such as food or garden waste—is also a form of recycling. Materials to be recycled are either delivered to a household recycling center or picked up from curbside bins, then sorted, cleaned, and reprocessed into new materials destined for manufacturing new products. In the strictest sense, recycling of a material would produce a fresh supply of the same material—for example, used office paper would be converted into new office paper or used polystyrene foam into new polystyrene. However, this is often difficult or too expensive (compared with producing the same product from raw materials or other sources), so "recycling" of many products or materials involves their reuse in producing different materials (for example, paperboard) instead. Another form of recycling is the salvage of certain materials from complex products, either due to their intrinsic value (such as lead from car batteries, or gold from printed circuit boards), or due to their hazardous nature (e.g., removal and reuse of mercury from thermometers and thermostats).
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Chhattisgarh | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Chhattisgarh 00:01:06 1 Etymology 00:02:40 2 Geography 00:05:09 2.1 Climate 00:05:54 3 Transport 00:06:03 3.1 Roads 00:07:30 3.2 Rail network 00:08:49 3.2.1 Rail network expansion 00:10:27 3.3 Air 00:12:09 4 History 00:12:17 4.1 Ancient and medieval history 00:12:55 4.2 Colonial and post-independence history 00:14:09 4.3 Separation of Chhattisgarh 00:16:16 5 Governance 00:16:37 6 Administration 00:16:51 6.1 Divisions 00:17:00 6.2 Districts 00:17:15 6.3 Major cities 00:17:24 7 Economy 00:18:00 7.1 Tea production 00:18:52 7.2 Agriculture 00:20:06 7.2.1 Agricultural products 00:21:02 7.2.2 Irrigation 00:23:31 7.3 Industrial sector 00:23:40 7.3.1 Power sector 00:25:19 7.3.2 Steel sector 00:26:01 7.3.3 Aluminium sector 00:26:20 7.3.4 Natural resources 00:26:28 7.3.4.1 Forest 00:27:00 7.3.4.2 Mineral deposits 00:27:37 7.3.4.3 Information and technologies 00:28:06 7.3.4.4 Major companies 00:28:38 7.4 Exports 00:29:21 8 Human Development Indicators 00:29:31 8.1 HDI 00:29:57 8.2 Standard of living 00:30:45 8.3 Education Index 00:31:56 8.4 Health Index 00:32:51 8.5 Net state domestic product 00:33:36 8.6 Urbanisation 00:34:17 8.7 Sex ratio 00:34:49 8.8 Fertility rate 00:35:13 8.9 SC and ST population 00:36:32 8.10 Poverty 00:37:35 8.11 Access to drinking water 00:38:26 8.12 Sanitation 00:39:14 8.13 Teledensity 00:39:59 8.14 Road density 00:40:40 9 Demographics 00:41:32 9.1 Religion 00:42:03 9.1.1 Witchcraft 00:43:04 9.1.2 Religious persecution 00:43:54 9.2 Language 00:44:43 9.3 Status of women 00:46:30 10 Culture 00:48:10 10.1 Literature 00:48:57 10.2 Crafts 00:49:30 10.3 Dance 00:49:52 10.3.1 Panthi 00:50:35 10.3.2 Pandwani 00:51:16 10.3.3 Raut Nacha 00:51:58 10.3.4 Soowa Nacha 00:52:27 10.3.5 Karma 00:52:54 11 Festivals of Chhattisgarh 00:53:22 11.1 Theatre 00:53:44 11.2 Film industry 00:54:00 11.3 Traditional food 00:54:16 12 Tourism 00:54:51 13 Education 00:55:13 13.1 Absolute literates and literacy rate 00:55:27 14 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Chhattisgarh (Chhattīsgaṛh, translation: Thirty-Six Forts) is one of the 29 states of India, located in the centre-east of the country. It is the tenth-largest state in India, with an area of 135,191 km2 (52,198 sq mi). With a population of 25.5 million, Chhattisgarh is the 17th-most populated state in the country. A resource-rich state, it is a source of electricity and steel for the country, accounting for 15% of the total steel produced. Chhattisgarh is one of the fastest-developing states in India.The state was formed on 1 November 2000 by partitioning 10 Chhattisgarhi and 6 Gondi speaking southeastern districts of Madhya Pradesh. The capital city is Raipur. Chhattisgarh borders the states of Madhya Pradesh in the northwest, Uttar Pradesh in the north, Jharkhand in northeast, Maharashtra in the southwest, Telangana and Andhra Pradesh in the south, Odisha in the southeast. Currently the state comprises 27 districts.
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Laos | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Laos Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ In case you don't find one that you were looking for, put a comment. This video uses Google TTS en-US-Standard-D voice. SUMMARY ======= Laos ( ( listen), ; Lao: ລາວ, Lāo [láːw]), officially the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao: ສາທາລະນະລັດ ປະຊາທິປະໄຕ ປະຊາຊົນລາວ, translit. Sathalanalat Paxathipatai Paxaxon Lao; French: République démocratique populaire lao), commonly referred to by its colloquial name of Muang Lao (Lao: ເມືອງລາວ, Muang Lao), is a socialist state and the only landlocked country in Southeast Asia at the heart of the Indochinese peninsula, bordered by Myanmar (Burma) and China to the northwest, Vietnam to the east, Cambodia to the southwest, and Thailand to the west and southwest.Present-day Laos traces its historic and cultural identity to the kingdom of Lan Xang Hom Khao (Kingdom of a Million Elephants Under the White Parasol), which existed for four centuries as one of the largest kingdoms in Southeast Asia. Due to Lan Xang's central geographical location in Southeast Asia, the kingdom became a popular hub for overland trade, becoming wealthy economically as well as culturally. After a period of internal conflict, Lan Xang broke off into three separate kingdoms—Luang Phrabang, Vientiane and Champasak. In 1893, it became a French protectorate, with the three territories uniting to form what is now known as the country of Laos. It briefly gained freedom in 1945 after Japanese occupation, but was recolonised by France until it won autonomy in 1949. Laos became independent in 1953, with a constitutional monarchy under Sisavang Vong. Shortly after independence, a long civil war ended the monarchy, when the Communist Pathet Lao movement came to power in 1975. During the first years of Communist rule, Laos was dependent on military and economic aid supported by the Soviet Union until its dissolution in 1991. According to the anti-corruption non-governmental organisation Transparency International, Laos remains one of the most corrupt countries in the world. This has deterred foreign investment and created major problems with the rule of law, including the nation's ability to enforce contract and business regulation. This has contributed to a third of the population of Laos currently living below the international poverty line (living on less than US$1.25 per day). Laos has a low-income economy, with one of the lowest annual incomes in the world. In 2014, the country ranked 141st on the Human Development Index (HDI), indicating lower medium development. According to the Global Hunger Index (2015), Laos ranks as the 29th hungriest nation in the world out of the list of the 52 nations with the worst hunger situation(s). The country has also had a poor human rights record. Laos is a member of the Asia-Pacific Trade Agreement (APTA), Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), East Asia Summit and La Francophonie. Laos applied for membership of the World Trade Organisation (WTO) in 1997; on 2 February 2013, it was granted full membership. It is a one-party socialist republic espousing Marxism–Leninism governed by the Lao People's Revolutionary Party, in which the party leadership is dominated by military figures.The capital and largest city is Vientiane. Other major cities include Luang Prabang, Savannakhet and Pakse. The official language is Lao. Laos is a multi-ethnic country, with the politically and culturally dominant Lao people making up about 55 percent of the population, mostly in the lowlands. Mon-Khmer groups, the Hmong and other indigenous hill tribes, accounting for 45 percent of the population, live in the foothills and mountains. Laos's ambitious strategies for development are based on generating electricity from its rivers and selling the power to its neighbours, namely Thailand, China and Vietnam, as well as its initiative to become a "land-linked" nation, shown by the planning of four new railways connecting Laos to its neighbours. Laos has been referred to as one of East Asia and Pacific's Fastest Growing Economies by the World Bank, with annual GDP growth averaging 7.8% for the past decade.
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