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Lecture on Cryptococcus mycology and virulence by Dr Malcolm Richardson
 
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Cellular structure. Serotypes: neoformans, gattii, grubii. Habitat. Virulence factors: polysaccharide capsule, melanin, phenotype switching. For slides and alternative formats please visit http://life-worldwide.org/life-education-slide-sets-video-presentations-and-reading-materials
India ink preparation
 
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India ink is used as a negative staining technique to demonstrate capsule. This video shows preparation of wet India ink mount for demonstration of Cryptococcus neoformans capsule in culture.
Views: 27569 Sridhar Rao
Cryptococcus neoformans
 
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Presentation for microbiology
Views: 139 Nicole De La Garza
Insights into Microbial Pathogenesis and Immunology from Cryptococcus Neoformans
 
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Insights into Microbial Pathogenesis and Immunology from Cryptococcus Neoformans Air date: Wednesday, January 28, 2015, 3:00:00 PM Category: WALS - Wednesday Afternoon Lectures Runtime: 00:59:37 Description: Wednesday Afternoon Lecture Series The majority of human pathogenic fungi are soil-dwelling microbes that have no obvious need for animal hosts. This raises a fundamental question in microbial pathogenesis: Why do some of these organisms cause disease in mammals? In this lecture we will dissect the biology of the human pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans in an effort to glean an explanation for the origin of virulence. C. neoformans is an intracellular pathogen with a remarkable replicative strategy that includes the capacity for exciting the host cell without triggering its lysis. This process involves inflicting just enough damage to the host cell to interfere with its microbicidal properties without triggering cell-death pathways such that intracellular replication can proceed unhindered while the host cell remains alive to participate in the exit of fungal cells. The similarity in the interactions between cryptococcal cells with macrophages and amoeba has led to the proposal that the cells' capacity for mammalian virulence emerged accidentally as a result of environmental interactions with phagocytic predators. In this lecture we will also explore the fascinating properties of melanin, an enigmatic pigment that performs a myriad of functions from enhancing cell-wall integrity to energy transduction. We will also consider some of the immunological lessons from studying C. neoformans, which produced important insights into novel antibody protective functions. Finally, we will look at the big picture of fungal pathogenesis and explore the concept of accidental virulence and the likelihood that global warming will bring new fungal diseases. Author: Arturo Casadevall, M.D., Ph.D., Professor in the Department of Medicine and in the Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine; Chair, Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health Permanent link: http://videocast.nih.gov/launch.asp?18822
Views: 3950 nihvcast
Cryptococcus neoformans, Unlike Candida albicans, Forms Aneuploid Clones Directly from Uninucleated
 
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Cryptococcus neoformans, Unlike Candida albicans, Forms Aneuploid Clones Directly from Uninucleated Cells under Fluconazole Stress. Yun C. Chang et al (2018), mBio https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio.01290-18 Heteroresistance to fluconazole (FLC) in Cryptococcus is a transient adaptive resistance which is lost upon release from the drug pressure. It is known that clones heteroresistant to FLC invariably contain disomic chromosomes, but how disomy is formed remains unclear. Previous reports suggested that the aneuploid heteroresistant colonies in Cryptococcus emerge from multinucleated cells, resembling the case in Candida albicans. Although a small number of cells containing multiple nuclei appear in a short time after FLC treatment, we provide evidence that the heteroresistant colonies in the presence of FLC arise from uninucleate cells without involving multinuclear/multimeric stages. We found that fidelity of chromosome segregation in mitosis plays an important role in regulation of FLC heteroresistance frequency in C. neoformans. Although FLC-resistant colonies occurred at a very low frequency, we were able to modulate the frequency of heteroresistance by overexpressing SMC1, which encodes a protein containing an SMC domain in chromosome segregation. Using time-lapse microscopy, we captured the entire process of colony formation from a single cell in the presence of FLC. All the multinucleated cells formed within a few hours of FLC exposure failed to multiply after a few cell divisions, and the cells able to proliferate to form colonies were all uninucleate without exception. Furthermore, no nuclear fusion event or asymmetric survival between mother and daughter cells, a hallmark of chromosome nondisjunction in haploid organisms, was observed. Therefore, the mechanisms of aneuploidy formation in C. neoformans appear different from most common categories of aneuploid formation known for yeasts.
Views: 58 ScienceVio
S&D Media 2012
 
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In this video, created by PowerPoint and Photostory, I will review 4 of the major types of selective & differential media typically used in the teaching microbiology laboratory. Media include MacConkey, eosin methylene blue, mannitol salt, and phenyl ethyl alcohol agars. Interpretation of typical results with examples are included. Images of typical results are from MicrobeLibrary maintained by the American Society for Microbiology (http://www.microbelibrary.org/) and images taken by myself (image of PEA plate results).
Views: 7550 Mark Pilgrim
Fungal Infections and Antifungal Treatments Ringworm Candida Aspergillus Histoplasmosis
 
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SKIP AHEAD: 0:32 – Intro to Fungi 2:17 – Systemic vs. Opportunistic Mycoses 4:52 – Coccidioidomycosis 5:41 – Histoplasmosis 6:23 – Blastomycosis 6:54 – Geographic Map of Systemic Fungi 7:26 – Cryptococcus 8:17 - Aspergillus 9:30 – PCP and Pneumocystis 10:06 - Zygomycosis (Mucormycosis & Rhizopus) 11:06 – Tineae (Athletes Foot, Ring worm, Tinea Versicolor …) 12:50 – Candida 14:07 – Sporothrix 14:29 – Azoles (Diflucan, Flucanazole, ketoconazole…) 15:20 – Amphotericin B & Nystatin 15:58 - Capsofungin & Micanofungin For the text and pictures in this video please go to my website http://www.stomponstep1.com/fungal-infections-antifungal-treatments-ringworm-candida-aspergillus-histoplasmosis/ Pictures Used: “Coccidioidomycosis_Spherule” by CDC available at https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Coccidioidomycosis_Spherule.jpg via Public Domain ” Histoplasmosis Capsulatum” by CDC available at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Histoplasmosis#/media/File:Histoplasmosis_capsulatum.jpg via Public Domain “Blastomyces dermatitidis” by CDC available at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blastomycosis#/media/File:Blastomyces_dermatitidis_GMS.jpeg via Public Domain Derivative of “Blastomycosis cropped” by Joel Mills available at https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Blastomycosis_cropped.JPG via Creative Commons 3.0 Attribution-Share Alike Derivative of “Cryptococcus neoformans using a light India ink staining” by CDC available at https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Cryptococcus_neoformans_using_a_light_India_ink_staining_preparation_PHIL_3771_lores.jpg via Public Domain Derivative of “Cryptoccocus Gram Film” by Graham Beards available at https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Cryptococcus_Gram_film.jpg via Creative Commons 3.0 Attribution Share Alike Derivative of “Aspergilloma complicating tuberculosis 2” by Yale Rosen available at https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Aspergilloma_complicating_tuberculosis_2.jpg via Creative Commons 2.0 Attribution-Share Alike “Aspergillosis, angioinvasive, intravascular” by Yale Rosen available at https://www.flickr.com/photos/pulmonary_pathology/5390967599 via Creative Commons 2.0 Attribution-Share Alike Derivative of “Zygomycosis/mucormycosis” by Yale Rosen available at https://www.flickr.com/photos/pulmonary_pathology/5390897069 via Creative Commons 2.0 Atribution Share Alike Derivative of “Zygomycosis, Mucormycosis 1” by Yale Rosen available at https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Zygomycosis,_mucormycosis_1.jpg via Creative Commons 2.0 Attribution-Share Alike Derivative of “Zygomycosis” by Nephron available at https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Zygomycosis.jpg via Creative Commons 3.0 Attribution-Share Alike “Ringworm on the arm, or tinea corporis due to Trichophyton mentagrophytes” by CDC available at https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ringworm_on_the_arm,_or_tinea_corporis_due_to_Trichophyton_mentagrophytes_PHIL_2938_lores.jpg via Public Domain “Teigne - Tinea capitis” by Grook Da Oger available at https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Teigne_-_Tinea_capitis.jpg via Creative Commons 4.0 International Attribution Share Alike License “Onychomycosis due to Trychophyton rubrum, right and left great toe” by CDC available at https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Onychomycosis_due_to_Trychophyton_rubrum,_right_and_left_great_toe_PHIL_579_lores.jpg via Public Domain “Tinea versicolor1” by Sarahrosenau available at https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Tinea_versicolor1.jpg via Creative Commons 2.0 Attribution-Share Alike “Candida albicans” by Y Tambe available at https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Candida_albicans.jpg via Creative Commons 3.0 Unported Attribution-Share Alike License “Human tongue infected with oral candidiasis” by James Heilman available at https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Human_tongue_infected_with_oral_candidiasis.jpg via Creative Commons 3.0 Unported Attribution-Share Alike
Views: 15340 Stomp On Step 1
Step 1 Opportunistic Fungi | Aspergillus, Mucormycosis, P jirovecii, Candida & Cryptococcus
 
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Hello again doctors! In this video I review the Opportunistic fungi for Step 1. Play close attention to each microbe's morphology [SO sorry for the background noise. Won't happen again]. Leave any questions below in the comments section. I wish you all the very best of luck studying, stay positive and keep moving forward. Timestamps -Aspergillus 1:30 -Mucor & Rhizophus 5:41 -Pneumocystis jirovecii 9:30 -Candida albicans 13:31 -Cryptococcus neoformans 18:05 Sources -Robbin's Pathology -Lippincott's Medical Microbiology -Sketchy Micro -Individual photo sources are listed on slides Outro song: Mine -Bazzi
Views: 1162 Slay Step 1
Bacterial capsule
 
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The cell capsule is a very large structure of some prokaryotic cells, such as bacterial cells. It is a polysaccharide layer that lies outside the cell envelope of bacteria, and is thus deemed part of the outer envelope of a bacterial cell. It is a well-organized layer, not easily washed off, and it can be the cause of various diseases. The capsule—which can be found in both Gram-negative bacteria and Gram-positive bacteria—should not be confused with the second lipid membrane, which contains lipopolysaccharides and lipoproteins and is found only in Gram-negative bacteria. When the amorphous viscid secretion diffuses into the surrounding medium and remains as a loose undemarcated secretion, it is known as slime layer. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 9110 Audiopedia
Negative Stain
 
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How to perform a negative stain. For help on other staining techniques check out our other demos.
Views: 52093 WPI
candida growth  on Cystine electrolyte Deficient agar ( CLED) agar
 
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Candida growth on Cystine electrolyte Deficient agar ( CLED) agar Yeast cells seen in gram staining Germ tube test (GTT)- Positive So, the organism is Candida albicans ( specimen was urine) -~-~~-~~~-~~-~- Please watch: "Germ tube test" https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W-fSMpaRA2o -~-~~-~~~-~~-~-
Views: 511 Microhub Plus
Neet Images microbiology explained
 
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Images explained by Dr Sonu panwar MBBS MD Microbiology
Diseases caused by animals to human|Biology Terms
 
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10 diseases can be caused by animals to human.1, Anthrax: Anthrax is an infection caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis. It can occur in four forms: skin, lungs, intestinal, and injection, Symptoms begin between one day and two months after the infection is contracted.2, Australian bat lyssavirus;Australian bat lyssavirus is a zoonotic virus closely related to rabies virus. It was first identified in a 5-month-old juvenile black flying fox (Pteropus alecto) collected near Ballina in northern New South Wales. 3, Brucellosis : Brucellosis is a highly contagious zoonosis caused by ingestion of unpasteurized milk or undercooked meat from infected animals, or close contact with their secretions.4,Cryptococcosis: Cryptococcosis, also known as cryptococcal disease, is a potentially fatal fungal disease. It is caused by one of two species; Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii.5 Giardiasis: Giardiasis is an infection in your small intestine. It's caused by a microscopic parasite called Giardia lamblia.6 Hydatid disease: Hydatid disease is a parasitic infestation by a tapeworm of the genus Echinococcus.7 Tetanus: Tetanus is caused by an infection with the bacterium Clostridium tetani, which is commonly found in soil, saliva, dust, and manure.8, Q fever: Q fever is a zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii, an obligate gram-negative intracellular bacterium. Cattle, sheep, and goats are the primary reservoirs for this disease. 9,Toxoplasmosis. 10 : elephantiasis : Lymphatic filariasis, also known as elephantiasis, is a human disease caused by parasitic worms known as filarial worms. -~-~~-~~~-~~-~- Images under licence cc : www.pexels.com www.flickr.com commons.wikimedia.org pixabay.com
Views: 236 Biology Terms
Treatments: Sickle Cell Anemia, Sporothrix Schenckii, Stable Angina, S. Aureus & S. Bovis
 
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http://usmlefasttrack.com/?p=5397 Common, Treatments:, Sickle, Cell, Anemia,, Sporothrix, Schenckii,, Stable, Angina,, Staphylococcus, Aureus, &, Streptococcus, Bovis, Findings, symptoms, findings, causes, mnemonics, review, what is, video, study, Rapid Review, Clinical presenation, First Aid, for, USMLE, Step 1, images, wiki, define, wikipedia, 2013, videos, exam, prep, easy, What is usmle, mnemonic, causes,
Views: 320 USMLEFastTrack
Candida albicans filamentation
 
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Induction of germ tubes and hyphae by Candida albicans
Views: 1800 Oscar Zaragoza
Encephalitis
 
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Encephalitis (from Ancient Greek ἐγκέφαλος, enképhalos “brain”, composed of ἐν, en, “in” and κεφαλή, kephalé, “head”, and the medical suffix -itis “inflammation”) is an acute inflammation of the brain. Encephalitis with meningitis is known as meningoencephalitis. Symptoms include headache, fever, confusion, drowsiness, and fatigue. More advanced and serious symptoms include seizures or convulsions, tremors, hallucinations, and memory problems. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 5275 Audiopedia
PNEUMONIA - WikiVidi Documentary
 
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Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung affecting primarily the small air sacs known as alveoli. Typically symptoms include some combination of productive or dry cough, chest pain, fever, and trouble breathing. Severity is variable. Pneumonia is usually caused by infection with viruses or bacteria and less commonly by other microorganisms, certain medications and conditions such as autoimmune diseases. Risk factors include other lung diseases such as cystic fibrosis, COPD, and asthma, diabetes, heart failure, a history of smoking, a poor ability to cough such as following a stroke, or a weak immune system. Diagnosis is often based on the symptoms and physical examination. Chest X-ray, blood tests, and culture of the sputum may help confirm the diagnosis. The disease may be classified by where it was acquired with community, hospital, or health care associated pneumonia. Vaccines to prevent certain types of pneumonia are available. Other methods of prevention include hand... http://www.wikividi.com ____________________________________ Shortcuts to chapters: 00:02:24: Signs and symptoms 00:04:40: Cause 00:06:03: Bacteria 00:07:47: Viruses 00:09:07: Fungi 00:09:56: Parasites 00:11:03: Noninfectious 00:11:32: Mechanisms 00:11:47: Viral 00:13:02: Bacterial 00:14:18: Diagnosis 00:16:24: Physical exam 00:17:18: Imaging 00:19:08: Microbiology 00:20:12: Classification 00:21:24: Community 00:21:47: Healthcare 00:23:07: Differential diagnosis 00:23:47: Prevention 00:24:16: Vaccination 00:25:28: Medications 00:25:56: Other 00:27:54: Management 00:29:32: Bacterial 00:31:34: Viral 00:32:50: Aspiration 00:33:34: Prognosis 00:34:42: Clinical prediction rules 00:34:59: Pleural effusion, empyema, and abscess 00:36:31: Respiratory and circulatory failure 00:37:27: Epidemiology 00:38:11: Children 00:39:16: History 00:43:06: Awareness 00:43:25: Costs ____________________________________ Copyright WikiVidi. Licensed under Creative Commons. Wikipedia link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pneumonia
Pneumonia | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Pneumonia Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung affecting primarily the small air sacs known as alveoli. Typically symptoms include some combination of productive or dry cough, chest pain, fever, and trouble breathing. Severity is variable.Pneumonia is usually caused by infection with viruses or bacteria and less commonly by other microorganisms, certain medications and conditions such as autoimmune diseases. Risk factors include other lung diseases such as cystic fibrosis, COPD, and asthma, diabetes, heart failure, a history of smoking, a poor ability to cough such as following a stroke, or a weak immune system. Diagnosis is often based on the symptoms and physical examination. Chest X-ray, blood tests, and culture of the sputum may help confirm the diagnosis. The disease may be classified by where it was acquired with community, hospital, or health care associated pneumonia.Vaccines to prevent certain types of pneumonia are available. Other methods of prevention include handwashing and not smoking. Treatment depends on the underlying cause. Pneumonia believed to be due to bacteria is treated with antibiotics. If the pneumonia is severe, the affected person is generally hospitalized. Oxygen therapy may be used if oxygen levels are low.Pneumonia affects approximately 450 million people globally (7% of the population) and results in about 4 million deaths per year. Pneumonia was regarded by William Osler in the 19th century as "the captain of the men of death". With the introduction of antibiotics and vaccines in the 20th century, survival improved. Nevertheless, in developing countries, and among the very old, the very young, and the chronically ill, pneumonia remains a leading cause of death. Pneumonia often shortens suffering among those already close to death and has thus been called "the old man's friend".
Views: 15 wikipedia tts

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