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The BB84 Protocol
 
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A short video attempting to explain the Bennett & Brassard quantum cryptography protocol. I've omitted any mention of the particular details of quantum physics that would be involved in actual real-world implementations, such as particle polarization axes, spin, and so forth, instead replacing them with abstract "processes" and freakish mysterious "machines". The physical details (interesting though they are) are not needed to understand the basics of the protocol, and I'm no physicist, so I'd probably mess them up if I tried (assuming I haven't already!). Making these images has increased my affection for Microsoft PowerPoint, and putting them all into a video has hugely exacerbated my hatred for Windows Movie Maker. NOTE: An important missing piece of information: When Alice sends qubits to Bob, she chooses between process A and process B randomly for each qubit. NOTE 2: The following video explains BB84 as well, and gives more detail regarding the physics details: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7SMcf1MdOaQ NOTE 3: Here is another very interesting video about quantum cryptography. Any given real-world implementation, despite using the BB84 protocol, is bound to expose weaknesses that can be exploited. For example: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T0WnUlF2eAo
Views: 43223 Creature Mann
How to establish a random encryption key securely with the Quantum Key Distribution scheme ?
 
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BB84 protocol is a quantum key distribution scheme developed by Charles Bennett and Gilles Brassard in 1984. It is the first quantum cryptography protocol. The protocol is provably secure, relying on the quantum property that information gain is only possible at the expense of disturbing the signal if the two states one is trying to distinguish are not orthogonal (see no-cloning theorem). It is usually explained as a method of securely communicating a private key from one party to another for use in one-time pad encryption. Alice creates a random bit of 0 or 1 and then randomly selects one of her two bases (rectilinear or diagonal) to transmit it in. She then prepares a photon polarization state depending both on the bit value and basis. So for example a 0 is encoded in the rectilinear basis (+) as a vertical polarization state, and a 1 is encoded in the diagonal basis (x) as a 135° state. Alice then transmits a single photon in the state specified to Bob, using a quantum channel. This process is then repeated from the random bit stage, with Alice recording the state, basis and time of each photon sent. As Bob does not know the basis the photons were encoded in, all he can do is to select a basis at random to measure in, either rectilinear or diagonal. He does this for each photon he receives, recording the time, measurement basis used and measurement result. After Bob has measured all the photons, he communicates with Alice over the public classical channel. Alice broadcasts the basis each photon was sent in, and Bob the basis each was measured in. They both discard photon measurements (bits) where Bob used a different basis, which is half on average, leaving half the bits as a shared key. Quantum key distribution is only used to produce and distribute a key, not to transmit any message data. This key can then be used with the one-time pad cipher with a secret random key. This video was downloaded and edited from Quantum cryptography, animated by Centre for Quantum Technologies @ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LaLzshIosDk
Views: 61 satnamo
What is QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY? What does QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY mean?
 
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What is QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY? What does QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY mean? QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY meaning - QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY definition - QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Quantum cryptography is the science of exploiting quantum mechanical properties to perform cryptographic tasks. The best known example of quantum cryptography is quantum key distribution which offers an information-theoretically secure solution to the key exchange problem. Currently used popular public-key encryption and signature schemes (e.g., RSA and ElGamal) can be broken by quantum adversaries. The advantage of quantum cryptography lies in the fact that it allows the completion of various cryptographic tasks that are proven or conjectured to be impossible using only classical (i.e. non-quantum) communication (see below for examples). For example, it is impossible to copy data encoded in a quantum state and the very act of reading data encoded in a quantum state changes the state. This is used to detect eavesdropping in quantum key distribution. History: Quantum cryptography uses Heisenberg's uncertainty principle formulated in 1927, and the No-cloning theorem first articulated by Wootters and Zurek and Dieks in 1982. Werner Heisenberg discovered one of the fundamental principles of quantum mechanics: "At the instant at which the position of the electron is known, its momentum therefore can be known only up to magnitudes which correspond to that discontinuous change; thus, the more precisely the position is determined, the less precisely the momentum is known, and conversely” (Heisenberg, 1927: 174–5). This simply means that observation of quanta changes its behavior. By measuring the velocity of quanta we would affect it, and thereby change its position; if we want to find a quant's position, we are forced to change its velocity. Therefore, we cannot measure a quantum system's characteristics without changing it (Clark, n.d.) and we cannot record all characteristics of a quantum system before those characteristics are measured. The No-cloning theorem demonstrates that it is impossible to create a copy of an arbitrary unknown quantum state. This makes unobserved eavesdropping impossible because it will be quickly detected, thus greatly improving assurance that the communicated data remains private. Quantum cryptography was proposed first by Stephen Wiesner, then at Columbia University in New York, who, in the early 1970s, introduced the concept of quantum conjugate coding. His seminal paper titled "Conjugate Coding" was rejected by IEEE Information Theory Society, but was eventually published in 1983 in SIGACT News (15:1 pp. 78–88, 1983). In this paper he showed how to store or transmit two messages by encoding them in two "conjugate observables", such as linear and circular polarization of light, so that either, but not both, of which may be received and decoded. He illustrated his idea with a design of unforgeable bank notes. In 1984, building upon this work, Charles H. Bennett, of the IBM's Thomas J. Watson Research Center, and Gilles Brassard, of the Université de Montréal, proposed a method for secure communication based on Wiesner's "conjugate observables", which is now called BB84. In 1991 Artur Ekert developed a different approach to quantum key distribution based on peculiar quantum correlations known as quantum entanglement. Random rotations of the polarization by both parties (usually called Alice and Bob) have been proposed in Kak's three-stage quantum cryptography protocol. In principle, this method can be used for continuous, unbreakable encryption of data if single photons are used. The basic polarization rotation scheme has been implemented. The BB84 method is at the basis of quantum key distribution methods. Companies that manufacture quantum cryptography systems include MagiQ Technologies, Inc. (Boston, Massachusetts, United States), ID Quantique (Geneva, Switzerland), QuintessenceLabs (Canberra, Australia) and SeQureNet (Paris, France).
Views: 1131 The Audiopedia
Quantum Key Distribution security
 
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http://spirent.com Presentation on how to use Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) to set up a secrete key between two parties. Also a quick overview of the protocol BB84. Sometimes known as Quantum cryptography.
Views: 7425 alantalkstech
Can We Speak... Privately? Quantum Cryptography Lecture by Chip Elliott
 
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Chip Elliott of Raytheon BBN Technologies, gave a talk titled "Can we Speak... Privately? Quantum Cryptography in a Broader Context" as part of the Quantum Frontiers Distinguished Lecture Series on June 21, 2012. This talk is presented by the Institute for Quantum Computing and the University of Waterloo's Department of Physics and Astronomy. Abstract: It's often useful to have a private conversation within a public world. What role can quantum cryptography play in keeping conversations private? Sometimes described as providing "unconditional security guaranteed by the laws of quantum physics," its security implications are both tantalizing and surprisingly elusive. This talk introduces quantum cryptography and describes the speaker's experience creating several types of quantum cryptography equipment, within the broader context of mainstream cryptography and secure communications. Biography: Chip Elliott is Project Director for GENI, a suite of experimental infrastructure being created by the National Science Foundation for research in network science and engineering. He is a Fellow of the AAAS and IEEE, and an active inventor with over 80 issued patents. Dr. Elliott has served on many national panels and has held visiting faculty positions at Dartmouth College, Tunghai University in Taiwan, and the Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur. For More: http://iqc.uwaterloo.ca http://www.facebook.com/QuantumIQC http://www.twitter.com/QuantumIQC QuantumFactory Blog: http://quantumfactory.wordpress.com
quantum cryptography online course - dotsecurity 2017 - tanja lange - post-quantum cryptography
 
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Interview Shaheer Niazi at National Science Fair " Quantum key distribution". Com® WikiAnswers® Categories Technology Computers Computer Programming What is quantum cryptography. Quantum key distribution exploits certain properties of these quantum states to ensure its security. Quantum key distribution provides a method to renew the key using just public transmissions plus the transmission of quantum bits. Background of Quantum key distribution: 2. Quantum key distribution (QKD) promises unconditional security in data communication and is currently being deployed in commercial applications. Quantum Key Distribution: State of the Art Technology and Real-life Applications, Kelly Richdale. Quantum key distribution (QKD) is a secure communication method which implements a cryptographic protocol involving components of quantum mechanics. ENISA Briefing: Quantum Key Distribution. Keywords: Quantum Cryptography, Quantum Key Distribution, QKD, survey, BB84, Eckert, Bennet, Brassard, photon number splitting attack, PNS, privacy amplification. Quantum key distribution (QKD) uses individual photons for the exchange of cryptographic key data between two users, where each photon represents a single bit of data. Analysing the cryptographic implications of Quantum Key Distribution is a very complex task. Abstract : Quantum key distribution (QKD) provides a way for distribution of secure key in at least two parties which they initially share. Entanglement is crucial for long-distance quantum key distribution. To keep ahead of hackers, one promising option is quantum key distribution (QKD). Quantum key distribution is a secure communication method which implements a cryptographic protocol involving components of quantum mechanics. The quantum key distribution protocols described above provide Alice and Bob with nearly identical shared keys, and also with an estimate of the discrepancy between the keys. Companies that manufacture quantum cryptography systems include magiq technologies inc. What does quantum cryptography mean? What is quantum cryptography is it related solid state physics. Basic Cryptography Powerpoint viewgraph; Quantum Cryptography: A Bibliography of Quantum Cryptography by Gilles Brassard, http Part I: Introduction to Post Quantum Cryptography Yet, despite being fundamentally 5 reviews for Quantum Cryptography online course. Maybe you should try taking Quantum Cryptography online course offered by Caltech and TU Delft on edX. Home Security Cryptography What is Quantum Cryptography. Quantum key distribution (QKD) uses quantum mechanics to guarantee secure communication. I'm looking for a simulation of the Quantum Key Distribution protocol. The front end terminal is encrypted utilizing a one time pad as a key and a quantum key distribution protocol. Here is a good introductory article on QC (quatum cryptography) entitled What is Quantum Cryptography I ran across recently.
quantum cryptography notes - download applied quantum cryptography lecture notes in physics book
 
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Reducing storage and transmission requirements, Quantum cryptography Notes Edit. The quantum cryptography school for young students (qcsys) is a unique eight-day enrichment program for students hosted by the institute for quantum computing (iqc) at the university of waterloo... Random rotations of the polarization by both parties (usually called alice and bob) have been proposed in kak's three-stage quantum cryptography protocol.Watson research center) talks about the founders of quantum cryptography. What does quantum cryptography mean? Companies that manufacture quantum cryptography systems include magiq technologies inc. The quantum cryptography school for young students (qcsys) is a unique eight-day enrichment program for students hosted by the institute for quantum computing (iqc) at the university of waterloo...Elliptic curve cryptography Quantum cryptography Notes References. The fathers of quantum cryptography - charles bennett.The fathers of quantum cryptography - charles bennett.Download applied quantum cryptography lecture notes in physics book. Post-quantum cryptography (sometimes referred to as quantum-proof, quantum-safe or quantum-resistant) refers to cryptographic algorithms (usually public-key algorithms) that are thought to be secure against an attack by a quantum What does QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY mean. Quantum Mechanics the basics Foundations for understanding quantum mechanics Quantum Mechanics (Field Of Study) Quantum Mechanics for Dummies Quantum Mechanics made Nima Arkani-Hamed Public Lecture: Quantum Mechanics and Spacetime in the 21st Century. In this video you’ll learn about the use of elliptic curves to create encryption keys and how quantum cryptography can be used for spy-proof secure channels.. Download applied quantum cryptography lecture notes in physics book. Download applied quantum cryptography lecture notes in physics book. Elliptic curve and quantum cryptography - comptia security+ sy0-401: 6. Gilles brassard the concept of quantum cryptography... More From: Quantum mechanics (field of study). Download applied quantum cryptography lecture notes in physics book.Quantum cryptography school for young students.The advantage of quantum cryptography lies in the fact that it allows the completion of various cryptographic tasks that are proven or conjectured to be impossible using only classical (i. The best known example of quantum cryptography is quantum key distribution which offers an information-theoretically secure solution to the key exchange problem.What does quantum cryptography mean? Quantum cryptography meaning - quantum cryptography definition - quantum cryptography explanation...
Quantum Teleportation and Cryptography
 
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Topics covered: Cryptography, OTP and QKD, physical qubits, quantum coin flipping, quantum cloning circuit, Bell state circuit, quantum teleportation circuit.
Views: 1226 Quantum Computing
What is QUANTUM TELEPORTATION? What does QUANTUM TELEPORTATION mean?
 
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What is QUANTUM TELEPORTATION? What does QUANTUM TELEPORTATION mean? QUANTUM TELEPORTATION meaning - QUANTUM TELEPORTATION definition - QUANTUM TELEPORTATION explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Quantum teleportation is a process by which quantum information (e.g. the exact state of an atom or photon) can be transmitted (exactly, in principle) from one location to another, with the help of classical communication and previously shared quantum entanglement between the sending and receiving location. Because it depends on classical communication, which can proceed no faster than the speed of light, it cannot be used for faster-than-light transport or communication of classical bits. While it has proven possible to teleport one or more qubits of information between two (entangled) atoms, this has not yet been achieved between molecules or anything larger. Although the name is inspired by the teleportation commonly used in fiction, there is no relationship outside the name, because quantum teleportation concerns only the transfer of information. Quantum teleportation is not a form of transportation, but of communication; it provides a way of transporting a qubit from one location to another, without having to move a physical particle along with it. However, quantum teleportation of particles has been theorized to also be possible, and to perhaps be an explanation for the teleportation-like effects seen in superconductivity and superfluidity. The seminal paper first expounding the idea of quantum teleportation was published by C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, C. Crépeau, R. Jozsa, A. Peres and W. K. Wootters in 1993. Since then, quantum teleportation was first realized with single photons and later demonstrated with various material systems such as atoms, ions, electrons and superconducting circuits. The record distance for quantum teleportation is 143 km (89 mi). In October 2015, scientists from the Kavli Institute of Nanoscience of the Delft University of Technology reported that the quantum nonlocality phenomenon is supported at the 96% confidence level based on a "loophole-free Bell test" study. These results were confirmed by two studies with statistical significance over 5 standard deviations which were published in December 2015.
Views: 318 The Audiopedia
Artur Ekert - Past, present and future of Quantum Information
 
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Elisabet Assens talking with physicist Artur Ekert [director of the Centre for Quantum Technologies] Dr. Ekert talks about present, past and future of Quantum Information. Script & edition by Javier García Music: HeroStreet (Philadelphia, USA)
Views: 1310 Javier Garcia
REALITY LOST Bonus scene 3. Christian Kurtsiefer on hacking quantum cryptography.
 
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SYNOPSIS At the beginning of the 20th Century, a major shift took place in science. Scientists started doing experiments with unprecedented precision -- fiddling with single particles, atoms, and electrons. And they got bewildered. Small objects seemed to have sort of fuzzy properties. What's more, the very act of observing them, of measuring them, seemed to bring them to life, excavate them from a vague domain. The equations of quantum mechanics were beautiful. They generated astonishingly correct answers for mind-boggling questions about the exotic micro world. But there was a price to pay. Objective reality had to go. Was it regained? --------------------------------------------- SCIENTISTS ON SCREEN Dagomir Kaszlikowski Physicist, theorist, Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore Artur Ekert Physicist, theorist, director of Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore; Professor of Quantum Physics, Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford Valerio Scarani Physicist, theorist, Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore Christian Kurtsiefer Physicist, experimentalist, Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore Charles Bennett Physicist, information theorist and IBM Fellow at IBM Research. Gilles Brassard Physicist, theorist at Université de Montréal Stephanie Wehner Physicist, theorist, Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore Vlatko Vedral Physicist, theorist, Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, and University of Oxford WRITTEN AND FILMED BY Karol Jalochowski HOSTED BY Dagomir Kaszlikowski SUPPORTED BY Artur Ekert DANCE CHOREOGRAPHED AND PERFORMED BY Strangeweather Movement Group Segments adapted from the performance "The Spooky Action at a Distance" Faye Lim Bernice Lee Christina Chan Jia Ai Daniel Sahagun Sanchez - a physicists too POTTERY SEQUENCES FILMED AT Thow Kwang Industry ARTWORKS BY Steven Low Thia Kwang Ng Yang Ce MUSIC Jessica Lurie Ensemble "Baba Yaga's Seven League Boots", "Shop of Wild Dreams", "Dreamsville", "Hunger Artist Theme", "The 43rd Day", "Sleepwalker's Travel Guide", "Pinjur", "Grinch", "Z.I.P.A.", "For A Thousand Kisses (instrumental version)", "I Don't Care If I Don't Care (instrumental version)" ADDITIONAL PHOTOGRAPHY Dagomir Kaszlikowski SOUND CO-RECORDED BY Momo Lu Yin PHOTOGRAPHS European Laboratory for Particle Physics Leo Baeck Institute Krishnamurti Foundation Trust MANY THANKS TO Ewa, Kajtek, and Jedrek Jalochowski Asanthi Shiyara Mendis Akihito Soeda Jenny Hogan AND MANY THANKS FOR HOSPITALITY TO Tan Teck Yoke and Yulianti Tan of Thow Kwang Industry Ltd. Steven Low Thia Kwang Ng Yang Ce THANKS FOR ENCOURAGEMENT TO Polityka Weekly MOVIE GRANT BY Centre for Quantum Techologies National University of Singapore FILMED IN SINGAPORE, 2013 MOVIE BLOG: quantum-dreams.com
Stephen Hawking at the Institute for Quantum Computing: The Boomerang of Time
 
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In June 2010, Stephen Hawking visited the Institute for Quantum Computing at the University of Waterloo to tour the laboratories and learn more about quantum information science. The visit reunited Hawking with his former doctoral student, IQC Executive Director Raymond Laflamme. In the 1980s, when Hawking was writing his best-seller "A Brief History of Time," Laflamme's job was to mathematically prove his mentor's theory about what happens to time in a contracting universe. Trouble was, the math just didn't add up. Laflamme instead proved that Hawking's theory — that time reverses direction — could not be true. Hawking conceded his student's calculations were sound, and personalized Laflamme's copy of "A Brief History of Time" by thanking Laflamme for proving that "the arrow of time is not a boomerang." During Hawking's visit to IQC, Laflamme returned the favour by presenting Hawking with a wooden boomerang — a symbol that the "arrow of time" can sometimes bring colleagues and friends full-circle. The boomerang, which Hawking took back to the UK, was is engraved with an optimistic message for the future: "Come back soon!" Learn more at: www.iqc.ca Find IQC on Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/pages/Institute-for-Quantum-Compu... Follow IQC on Twitter: http://twitter.com/quantumiqc
| FRQNT | La téléportation quantique | Gilles Brassard et Claude Crépeau
 
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Capsule produite pour l'émission Que sont devenues les découvertes de jadis, diffusée à Canal Savoir. Cet extrait retrace l'évolution d'une découverte de Gilles Brassard (Université de Montréal) et Claude Crépeau (Université McGill), sélectionnée parmi les 10 découvertes de l'année 1993 de Québec Science.
Quantum entanglement
 
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Quantum entanglement is a physical phenomenon that occurs when pairs or groups of particles are generated or interact in ways such that the quantum state of each particle cannot be described independently – instead, a quantum state may be given for the system as a whole. Measurements of physical properties such as position, momentum, spin, polarization, etc. performed on entangled particles are found to be appropriately correlated. For example, if a pair of particles is generated in such a way that their total spin is known to be zero, and one particle is found to have clockwise spin on a certain axis, then the spin of the other particle, measured on the same axis, will be found to be counterclockwise. Because of the nature of quantum measurement, however, this behavior gives rise to effects that can appear paradoxical: any measurement of a property of a particle can be seen as acting on that particle (e.g. by collapsing a number of superimposed states); and in the case of entangled particles, such action must be on the entangled system as a whole. It thus appears that one particle of an entangled pair "knows" what measurement has been performed on the other, and with what outcome, even though there is no known means for such information to be communicated between the particles, which at the time of measurement may be separated by arbitrarily large distances. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 770 Audiopedia
David Elkouss  - Benchmarking the utility of a quantum channel for secure communications
 
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Contributed Talk 6 by David Elkouss at 5th International Conference on Quantum Cryptography (QCrypt 2015) in Hitotsubashi Hall, Tokyo, September 28th, 2015. Download the slides at: http://2015.qcrypt.net/scientific-program/
Views: 53 QCrypt 2015
19. Multiparticle States and Tensor Products (continued)
 
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MIT 8.05 Quantum Physics II, Fall 2013 View the complete course: http://ocw.mit.edu/8-05F13 Instructor: Barton Zwiebach In this lecture, the professor continued to talk about the tensor product and also talked about entangled states, Bell basis states, quantum teleportation, etc. License: Creative Commons BY-NC-SA More information at http://ocw.mit.edu/terms More courses at http://ocw.mit.edu
Views: 8817 MIT OpenCourseWare
Key size
 
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In cryptography, key size or key length is the size measured in bits of the key used in a cryptographic algorithm. An algorithm's key length is distinct from its cryptographic security, which is a logarithmic measure of the fastest known computational attack on the algorithm, also measured in bits. The security of an algorithm cannot exceed its key length, but it can be smaller. For example, Triple DES has a key size of 168 bits but provides at most 112 bits of security, since an attack of complexity 2112 is known. This property of Triple DES is not a weakness provided 112 bits of security is sufficient for an application. Most symmetric-key algorithms in common use are designed to have security equal to their key length. No asymmetric-key algorithms with this property are known; elliptic curve cryptography comes the closest with an effective security of roughly half its key length. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 1121 Audiopedia

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